Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 863
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    Effects of COVID-19 in Endocrine Patients: Results of a Sicilian Experience

    Authors: Elisabetta Morini; Rosanna Palmeri; Giuseppa Maresca; Lilla Bonanno; Maria Cristina De Cola; Adriana Andaloro; Santina Caliri; Placido Bramanti; Francesco Corallo

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0041.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: Preprints.org

    In March 2020 the World Health Organization declared the “pandemic state” due to COVID-19 imposing strict confinement of the world population. People were forced to spend more time at home, changing some daily routines, including social interactions HP social interactions TRANS, the possibility to perform sports, and diet habits. These changes could exert a greater impact on patients suffering from chronic diseases MESHD, such as endocrine patients. This study aimed to assess the effects of Covid-19 induced quarantine on daily habits in a group of patients with endocrine disorders, focusing on food consumption, eating, and sleep habits during the confinement. Eighty-five endocrine patients were enrolled. A structured interview was administered investigating: socio-demographic information, general medical conditions and habits adopted during the quarantine. All patients underwent the Spielberger State Anxiety HP Inventory (STAI-Y1) to assess state anxiety HP. Subjects had mainly a sedentary lifestyle. We found a significant increase in the number of cigarettes in smokers, an increase of meals consumed during the confinement and a high rate of sleep disorder occurrence, especially insomnia HP. The changes of daily habits were, probably, due to the alterations of routine, that determined more bore and inactivity during the day.

    Household transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis of secondary attack rate TRANS

    Authors: Zachary J. Madewell; Yang Yang; Ira M. Longini Jr.; M. Elizabeth Halloran; Natalie E. Dean

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164590 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spread by direct, indirect, or close contact TRANS with infected people via infected respiratory droplets or saliva. Crowded indoor environments with sustained close contact TRANS and conversations are a particularly high-risk setting. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis through July 29, 2020 of SARS-CoV-2 household secondary attack rate TRANS ( SAR TRANS), disaggregating by several covariates (contact type, symptom status, adult TRANS/ child TRANS contacts, contact sex, relationship to index case, index case sex, number of contacts in household TRANS, coronavirus). Findings: We identified 40 relevant published studies that report household secondary transmission TRANS. The estimated overall household SAR TRANS was 18.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.4%-22.2%), which is higher than previously observed SARs for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. We observed that household SARs were significantly higher from symptomatic index cases than asymptomatic TRANS index cases, to adult TRANS contacts than children TRANS contacts, to spouses than other family contacts, and in households TRANS with one contact than households TRANS with three or more contacts. Interpretation: To prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, people are being asked to stay at home worldwide. With suspected or confirmed infections TRANS infections MESHD referred to isolate at home, household transmission TRANS will continue to be a significant source of transmission TRANS.

    The relative infectiousness of asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infected persons compared with symptomatic individuals: A rapid scoping review.

    Authors: David Mc Evoy; Conor G McAloon; Aine B Collins; Kevin Hunt; Francis Butler; Andrew W Byrne; Miriam Casey; Ann Barber; John M Griffin; Elizabeth A Lane; Patrick Wall; Simon J More

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165084 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a scoping review of estimates of the relative infectiousness of asymptomatic TRANS persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared with symptomatic individuals. Design: Rapid scoping review of literature available until 8th April 2020. Setting: International studies on the infectiousness of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 Participants: Studies were selected for inclusion if they defined asymptomatics TRANS as a separate cohort distinct from pre-symptomatics and if they provided a quantitative measure of the infectiousness of asymptomatics TRANS relative to symptomatics. Primary outcome measures: The relative number of secondary cases TRANS produced by an average primary case TRANS, the relative probability of transmitting infection MESHD upon contact, and the degree of viral shedding. Results: Very few studies reported estimates of relative infectiousness of asymptomatic TRANS compared with symptomatic individuals. Significant differences exist in the definition of infectiousness. Viral shedding studies in general show no difference in shedding levels between symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS individuals but are likely to be impacted by insufficient statistical power. Two contact tracing TRANS studies provided estimates of 0.7 and 1.0, but differences in approach and definition preclude comparison across the two studies. Finally, two modelling studies suggest a relative infectiousness of around 0.5 but one of these was more reflective of the infectiousness of undocumented rather than asymptomatic TRANS cases. Importantly, one contact tracing TRANS study showing a very low level of infectiousness of asymptomatic TRANS was not included in the analysis at this point due difficulties interpreting the reported findings. Conclusions: The present study highlights the need for additional studies in this area as a matter of urgency. For the purpose of epidemiological modelling, we cautiously suggest that at present, asymptomatics TRANS could be considered to have a degree of infectiousness which is about 0.40-0.70 that of symptomatics. However, it must be stressed that this suggestion comes from a very low evidence base and that estimates exist that are close to zero and close to 1.

    Throat wash as a source of SARS-CoV-2 RNA to monitor community spread of COVID-19.

    Authors: Giselle Ibette Silva Lopez-Lopes; Cintia Mayumi Ahagon; Margarete Aparecida Bonega; Fabiana Pereira dos Santos; Katia Correa de Oliveira Santos; Audrey Cilli; Lincoln Spinazola do Prado; Daniela Bernardes Borges da Silva; Nuria Borges da Luz; Claudia Patara Saraceni; Ana Maria Sardinha Afonso; Maria do Carmo Timenetsky; Luis Fernando de Macedo Brigido

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20163998 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection with real time PCR is currently the central diagnostic tool to determine ongoing active infection MESHD. Nasopharyngeal and oral swabs are the main collection tool of biological material used as the source of viral RNA outside a hospital setting. However, limitation in swabs availability, trained health professional with proper PPE and potential risk of aerosols may hinder COVID diagnosis. Self-collection with swabs, saliva and throat wash to obtain oropharyngeal wash has been suggested as having comparable performance SERO of regular swab. We performed throat wash (TW) based surveillance with laboratory heath workers and other employees (LHW) at a laboratory research institute. Methods: Consecutive volunteer testing of LWH and external household and close contacts TRANS were included. TW self-collection was performed in 5 mL of sterile saline that was returned to original vial after approximate 5 secs of gargle. RNA extraction and rtPCR were performed as part of routine COVID protocols using Allplex (Seegene, Korea). Results: Four hundred and twenty two volunteers, 387 (93%) LHW and 43 (7%) contacts participated in the survey. One or more positive COVID rtPCR was documented in 63 (14.9% CI95 12%-19%) individuals. No correlation was observed between with direct activities with COVID samples to positivity, with infection MESHD observed in comparable rates among different laboratory areas, administrative or supportive activities. Among 63 with detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA, 59 with clinical information, 58% reported symptoms at a median of 4 days prior to collection, most with mild disease MESHD. Over a third (38%) of asymptomatic TRANS cases developed symptoms 1-3 days after collection. Although overall CT values of TW were higher than that of contemporary swab tests from hospitalized cases, TW from symptomatic cases had comparable CTs. Conclusions: The study suggests that TW may be a valid alternative to the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The proportion of asymptomatic TRANS and pre-symptomatic cases is elevated and reinforces the need of universal precautions and frequent surveys to limit the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD.

    SABCoM: A Spatial Agent-Based Covid-19 Model

    Authors: Allan Davids; Gideon Du Rand; Co-Pierre Georg; Tina Koziol; Joeri Anton Schasfoort

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164855 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    How effective are 'lockdown' measures and other policy interventions to curb the spread of Covid-19 in emerging market cities that are characterized by large heterogeneity and high levels of informality? The most commonly used models to predict the spread of Covid-19 are SEIR models which lack the spatial resolution necessary to answer this question. We develop an agent-based model of social interactions HP social interactions TRANS in which the distribution of agents across wards, as well as their travel TRANS and interactions are calibrated to real data for Cape Town, South Africa. We characterize the elasticity of various policy interventions including increased likelihood to self-isolate, travel TRANS restrictions, assembly bans, and behavioural interventions like washing hands or wearing masks. Even in an informal setting, where agents' ability to self-isolate is compromised, a lockdown remains an effective intervention. In our model, the lockdown enacted in South Africa reduced expected fatalities in Cape Town by 26% and the expected demand for intensive care beds by 46%. However, our best calibration predicts a substantially higher case load, demand for ICU beds, and expected number of deaths MESHD than the current best estimate published for Cape Town.

    Five approaches to the suppression of SARS-CoV-2 without intensive social distancing

    Authors: John Drake; Pejman Rohani; Kyle Dahlin; Andreas Handel

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165159 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Initial efforts to mitigate transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 relied on intensive social distancing measures such as school and workplace closures, shelter-in-place orders, and prohibitions on the gathering of people. Other non-pharmaceutical interventions for suppressing transmission TRANS include active case finding, contact tracing TRANS, quarantine, immunity or health certification, and a wide range of personal protective measures. Here we investigate the potential effectiveness of these alternative approaches to suppression. We introduce a conceptual framework represented by two mathematical models that differ in strategy. We find both strategies may be effective, although both require extensive testing and work within a relatively narrow range of conditions. Generalized protective measures such as wearing face masks, improved hygiene, and local reductions in density are found to significantly increase the effectiveness of targeted interventions.

    Rapid real-time tracking of non-pharmaceutical interventions and their association SARS-CoV-2 positivity: The COVID-19 Pandemic Pulse Study

    Authors: Steven J. Clipman; Amy P. Wesolowski; Dustin G. Gibson; Smisha Agarwal; Anastasia S. Lambrou; Gregory D. Kirk; Alain B. Labrique; Shruti H. Mehta; Sunil S. Solomon

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164665 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Current mitigation strategies for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rely on population-wide adoption of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Collecting demographically and geographically resolved data on NPIs and their association with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD history can provide critical information related to reopening geographies. Methods: We sampled 1,030 individuals in Maryland from June 17 - June 28, 2020 to capture socio-demographically and geographically resolved information about NPI adoption, access to SARS-CoV-2 testing, and examine associations with self-reported SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Results: Median age TRANS of the sample was 43 years and 45% were men; Whites and Blacks/African Americans represented 60% and 23%, respectively. Overall, 96% of the sample reported traveling TRANS outside their home for non-employment related services: most commonly cited reasons were essential services (92%) and visiting friends TRANS/family (66%). Use of public transport was reported by 18% of respondents. 68% reported always social distancing indoors and 53% always wearing masks indoors; indoor social distancing was significantly less common among younger vs. older individuals, and race/ethnicity and income were significantly associated with mask use (p<0.05 for all). 55 participants (5.3%) self-reported ever testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 with strong dose-response relationships between movement frequency and SARS-CoV-2 positivity that were significantly attenuated by social distancing. In multivariable analysis, history of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was negatively associated with the practice of social distancing (adjusted Odd Ratio [aOR]: 0.10; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.03 - 0.33); the only travel TRANS associated with higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was use of public transport (aOR for 7 or more times vs. never: 4.29) and visiting a place of worship (aOR for 3 or more times vs. never: 16.0) after adjusting for social distancing. Conclusions: Using a rapid cost-efficient approach, we highlight the role of movement and social distancing on SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk TRANS. Continued monitoring of NPI uptake, access to testing, and the subsequent impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS will be critical for pandemic control and decisions about reopening geographies.

    Buzz about RT-qPCR: An RT-qPCR formulation for SARS-CoV-2 detection using reagents produced at Georgia Institute of Technology

    Authors: Samantha J. Mascuch; Sara Fakhretaha-Aval; Jessica C. Bowman; Minh Thu H. Ma; Gwendell Thomas; Bettina Bommarius; Chieri Ito; Liangjun Zhao; Gary P. Newnam; Kavita R. Matange; Hem R. Thapa; Brett Barlow; Rebecca K. Donegan; Nguyet A. Nguyen; Emily G. Saccuzzo; Chiamaka T. Obianyor; Suneesh C. Karunakaran; Pamela Pollet; Brooke Rothschild-Mancinelli; Santi Mestre-Fos; Rebecca Guth-Metzler; Anton V. Bryksin; Anton S. Petrov; Mallory Hazell; Carolyn B. Ibberson; Petar I. Penev; Robert G. Mannino; Wilbur A. Lam; Andrés J. Garcia; Julia M. Kubanek; Vinayak Agarwal; Nicholas V. Hud; Jennifer Blanchard Glass; Loren Dean Williams; Raquel L Lieberman

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20163949 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: medRxiv

    Widespread testing for the presence novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in patients remains vital for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic prior to the advent of an effective treatment. The early testing shortfall in some parts of the US can be traced TRANS to an initial shortage of supplies, expertise and/or instrumentation necessary to detect the virus by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Here we show that academic biochemistry and molecular biology laboratories equipped with appropriate expertise and infrastructure can produce the RT-qPCR assay and backfill pipeline shortages. The Georgia Tech COVID-19 Test Kit Support Group synthesized multiplexed primers and probes and formulated a master mix composed of enzymes and proteins produced in-house. We compare the performance SERO of our in-house kit to a commercial product used for diagnostic testing and describe implementation of environmental testing to monitor surfaces across various campus laboratories for the presence of SARS-CoV-2.

    Analytical approach to solve the problem of aircraft passenger boarding during the coronavirus pandemic

    Authors: Michael Schultz; Majid Soolaki

    id:2007.16021v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: arXiv

    We design an optimal group boarding method using a stochastic cellular automata model for passenger movements, which is extended by a virus transmission TRANS approach. Furthermore, a new mathematical model is developed to determine an appropriate seat layout for groups. The proposed seating layout is based on the idea that group members are allowed to have close contact TRANS and that groups should have a distance among each other. The sum of individual transmission TRANS rates is taken as the objective function to derive scenarios with a low level transmission risk TRANS. After the determination of an appropriate seat layout, the cellular automata is used to derive and evaluate a corresponding boarding sequence aiming at both short boarding times and low risk of virus transmission TRANS. We find that the consideration of groups in a pandemic scenario will significantly contribute to a faster boarding (reduction of time by about 60%) and less transmission risk TRANS (reduced by 85%), which reaches the level of boarding times in pre-pandemic scenarios.

    Incidence and outcomes of healthcare-associated COVID-19 infections MESHD: significance of delayed diagnosis and correlation with staff absence

    Authors: Kirstin Khonyongwa; Surabhi K Taori; Ana Soares; Nergish Desai; Malur Sudhanva; William Bernal; Silke Schelenz; Lisa A Curran

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20148262 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The sudden increase in COVID-19 admissions in hospitals during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic of 2020 has led to onward transmissions TRANS among vulnerable inpatients. Aims: This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence SERO and clinical outcomes of Healthcare-associated COVID-19 infections MESHD (HA-COVID-19) during the 2020 epidemic and study factors which may promote or correlate with its incidence and transmission TRANS in a London Teaching Hospital Trust. Methods: Electronic laboratory, patient and staff self-reported sickness records were interrogated for the period 1st March to 18th April 2020. HA-COVID-19 was defined as symptom onset TRANS >14d of admission. Test performance SERO of a single combined throat and nose swab (CTNS) for patient placement and the effect of delayed RNA positivity (DRP, defined as >48h delay) on patient outcomes was evaluated. The incidence of staff self-reported COVID-19 sickness absence, hospital bed occupancy, community incidence and DRP was compared HA-COVID-19. The incidence of other significant hospital-acquired bacterial infections MESHD (OHAI) was compared to previous years. Results: 58 HA-COVID-19 (7.1%) cases were identified. As compared to community-acquired cases, significant differences were observed in age TRANS (p=0.018), ethnicity (p<0.001) and comorbidity burden (p<0.001) but not in 30d mortality. CTNS negative predictive value SERO was 60.3%. DRP was associated with greater mortality (p=0.034) and 34.5% HA-COVID-19 cases could be traced TRANS to delayed diagnosis in CA-COVID-19. Incidence of HA-COVID-19 correlated positively with DRP (R=0.7108) and staff sickness absence (R=0.7815). OHAI rates were similar to previous 2 years. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and isolation of COVID-19 would help reduce transmission TRANS. A single CTNS has limited value in segregating patients into positive and negative pathways.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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