Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (131)

Fever (128)

Cough (101)

Fatigue (33)

Hypertension (23)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Prevalence SERO of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in healthy blood SERO donors in New York

    Authors: Kathy Kamath; Elisabeth Baum-Jones; Gregory Jordan; Winston Haynes; Rebecca Waitz; John Shon; Steve Kujawa; Lyn Fitzgibbons; Debra Kessler; Larry L Luchsinger; - Yale IMPACT Team; Patrick Daugherty; Shershah Assadullah; Matthew Leung; Aisling O'Neill; Chhaya Popat; Radhika Kumar; Thomas J Humphries; Rebecca Talbutt; Sarika Raghunath; Philip L Molyneaux; Miriam Schechter; Jeremy Lowe; Andrew Barlow

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215368 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT Despite the high level of morbidity and mortality worldwide, there is increasing evidence for asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed blood SERO specimens from 1,559 healthy blood SERO donors, collected in the greater New York metropolitan area between the months of March and July 2020 for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO virus. Using our proprietary technology, SERA ( Serum SERO Epitope Repertoire Analysis), we observed a significant increase in SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity rates over the four-month period, from 0% [95% CI: 0 - 1.5%] (March) to 11.6% [6.0 - 21.2%] (July). Follow-up ELISA SERO tests using S1 and nucleocapsid viral proteins confirmed most of these results. Our findings are consistent with seroprevalence SERO studies within the region and with reports that SARS-COV-2 infections MESHD can be asymptomatic TRANS or cause only mild symptoms. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has caused vast morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet several studies indicate that there may be a significant number of infected people MESHD who are asymptomatic TRANS or exhibit mild symptoms. In this study, samples were collected from healthy blood SERO donors in a region of rapidly increasing disease burden (New York metropolitan area) and we hypothesized that a subset would be seropositive to SARS-CoV-2. People who experienced mild or no symptoms during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD may represent a source for convalescent plasma SERO donors.

    PREVALENCE SERO OF ANTIBODIES SERO AGAINST SARS-CoV-2 IN MESHD PROFESSIONALS OF A PUBLIC HEALTH LABORATORY AT SAO PAULO, SP, BRAZIL

    Authors: Valeria Oliveira Silva; Elaine Lopes de Oliveira; Marcia Jorge Castejon; Rosemeire Yamashiro; Cintia Mayumi Ahagon; Giselle Ibette Lopez-Lopes; Edilene Peres Real da Silveira; Marisa Ailin Hong; Maria do Carmo Timenetsky; Carmem aparecida de Freitas Oliveira; Luis Fernando de Macedo Brigido; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20213421 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Covid-19 Serology may document exposure and perhaps protection to the virus, and serological test SERO may help understand epidemic dynamics. To evaluate previous exposure to the virus we estimated the prevalence SERO of antibodies SERO against-SARS-CoV-2 among HPs in Adolfo Lutz Institute, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: This study was performed among professionals of Adolfo Lutz Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil and some administrative areas of the Secretary of Health that shares common areas with the institute. We used a lateral flow immunoassay SERO ( rapid test SERO) to detect IgG and IgM for SARS-CoV-2; positive samples were further evaluated using Roche Electrochemiluminescence assay and SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was also offered to participants. Results: A total of 406 HPs participated. Thirty five (8.6%) tested positive on rapid test SERO and 32 these rapid test SERO seropositive cases were confirmed TRANS by ECLIA.. 43 HPs had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected at a median of 33 days, and the three cases not reactive at Roche ECLIA had a previous positive RNA. Outsourced professionals (34% seropositive), males TRANS (15%) workers referring COVID-19 patients at home (22%) and those living farther form the institute tended to have higher prevalence SERO of seropositivity, but in multivariable logistic analysis only outsourced workers and those with COVID patients at home remained independently associated to seropositivity. We observed no relation of seropositivity to COVID samples handling. Presence of at least one symptom was common but some clinical manifestations as anosmia HP anosmia MESHD/dysgeusia. Fatigue HP, cough HP cough MESHD and fever HP fever MESHD were associated to seropositivity. Conclusions: We documented a relatively high (8.6%) of anti-SARS-CoV-2 serological reactivity in this population, with higher rates among outsourced workers and those with referring cohabitation with COVID-19 patients. COVID samples handling was not related to increased seropositivity. Some symptoms how strong association to COVID-19 serology and may be used in scoring tools for screening or diagnosis in resort limited settings.

    Cognitive deficits MESHD in people who have recovered from COVID-19 relative to controls: An N=84,285 online study

    Authors: Adam Hampshire; William Trender; Samuel Chamberlain; Amy Jolly; Jon E Grant; Fiona Patrick; Ndaba Mazibuko; Steve Williams; Joe M Barnby; Peter Hellyer; Mitul A Mehta; Louise Perrin de Facci; Marie-Noelle Ungeheuer; Lucie Leon; Yvonnick Guillois; Laurent Filleul; Pierre Charneau; Daniel Levy-Bruhl; Sylvie van der Werf; Harold Noel; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20215863 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Case studies have revealed neurological problems in severely affected COVID-19 patients. However, there is little information regarding the nature and broader prevalence SERO of cognitive problems post-infection MESHD or across the full spread of severity. We analysed cognitive test data from 84,285 Great British Intelligence Test participants who completed a questionnaire regarding suspected and biologically confirmed COVID-19 infection MESHD. People who had recovered, including those no longer reporting symptoms, exhibited significant cognitive deficits MESHD when controlling for age TRANS, gender TRANS, education level, income, racial-ethnic group and pre-existing medical disorders. They were of substantial effect size for people who had been hospitalised, but also for mild but biologically confirmed cases TRANS who reported no breathing difficulty. Finer grained analyses of performance SERO support the hypothesis that COVID-19 has a multi-system impact on human cognition.

    Percentage HScore confirms low incidence of secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis MESHD in hospitalised COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Michael R Ardern-Jones; Matthew Stammers; Hang T.T. Phan; Florina Borca; Anastasia Koutalopoulou; Ying Teo; James Batchelor; Trevor Smith; Andrew Duncombe; Stacey House; Robi Mitra; Jeffrey D Milbrandt; William J Buchser; Emma D'Anglejan; Sylvain Diamantis; Marc-Antoine Custaud; Isabelle Pellier; Alain Mercat

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20214015 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: It has been assumed that a significant proportion of COVID-19 patients show evidence of hyperinflammation of which secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis MESHD (sHLH) is the most severe manifestation. To facilitate diagnosis of sHLH the HScore has been developed and validated. We set out to examine the prevalence SERO of sHLH-like hyperinflammation in COVID-19. Methods: We retrospectively examined HScore parameters in 626 COVID-19 cases admitted to our institute of which 567 were suitable for analysis and compared these to a cohort of confirmed infection TRANS infection MESHD associated sHLH cases. To account for missing data, we calculated the maximum possible HScore of the recorded parameters (%HScore). Results: Early measurement of HScore parameters (day -1 to 4 from diagnosis) strongly predicted the %HScore over the course of the admission (p <0.0001). The retrospective cohort of sHLH showed significantly higher %HScores as compared to COVID-19 (median 73.47 vs 18.13 respectively, p <0.0001). The overall prevalence SERO of individuals with an 80% probability of sHLH in our COVID-19 cohort was 1.59% on admission and only rose to 4.05% during the whole disease course. In the small cohort with scores suggestive of sHLH, there was no excess mortality compared with the whole cohort. %HScores were higher in younger patients (p<0.0001) and did not reliably predict outcome at any cut-off value (AUROC 0.533, p=0.211; OR 0.99). Conclusion: Surprisingly, these findings show that sHLH-type hyperinflammation is not prevalent in COVID-19, and %HScores do not predict outcome. Therefore, new algorithms are required to optimise case selection for clinical trials of targeted anti-inflammatory interventions.

    Efficacy of stay-at-home policy and transmission TRANS of COVID-19 in Toronto, Canada: a mathematical modeling study

    Authors: Pei Yuan; Juan Li; Elena Aruffo; Qi Li; Tingting Zheng; Nicholas Ogden; Beate Sander; Jane Heffernan; Evgenia Gatov; Effie Gournis; Sarah Collier; Yi Tan; Jun Li; Julien Arino; Jacques Belair; James Watmough; Jude Dzevela Kong; Iain Moyles; Huaiping Zhu

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20181057 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background In many parts of the world, restrictive non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) that aim to reduce contact rates, including stay-at-home orders, limitations on gatherings, and closure of public places, are being lifted, with the possibility that the epidemic resurges if alternative measures are not strong enough. Here we aim to capture the combination of use of NPIs and reopening measures which will prevent an infection rebound. Methods We employ a SEAIR model with a household structure able to capture the stay-at-home policy (SAHP). To reflect the changes in the SAHP over the course of the epidemic, we vary the SAHP compliance rate, assuming that the time to compliance of all the people requested to stay-at-home follows a Gamma distribution. Using confirmed case TRANS data for the City of Toronto, we evaluate basic and instantaneous reproduction numbers TRANS and simulate how the average household size, the stay-at-home rate, the efficiency and duration of SAHP implementation, affect the outbreak trajectory. Findings The estimated basic reproduction number TRANS R_0 TRANS was 2.36 (95% CI: 2.28, 2.45) in Toronto. After the implementation of the SAHP, the contact rate outside the household fell HP by 39%. When people properly respect the SAHP, the outbreak can be quickly controlled, but extending its duration beyond two months (65 days) had little effect. Our findings also suggest that to avoid a large rebound of the epidemic, the average number of contacts per person per day should be kept below nine. This study suggests that fully reopening schools, offices, and other activities, is possible if the use of other NPIs is strictly adhered to. Interpretation Our model confirmed that the SAHP implemented in Toronto had a great impact in controlling the spread of COVID-19. Given the lifting of restrictive NPIs, we estimated the thresholds values of the maximum number of contacts, probability of transmission TRANS and testing needed to ensure that the reopening will be safe, i.e. maintaining an R_t<1.

    SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among patients with multiple sclerosis MESHD; A cross-sectional study

    Authors: Mahnaz Bayat; Alireza Fayyazpoor; Afshin Borhani Haghighi; Daniyal Salehi; Hossein Molavi Vardanjan; Maryam Poursadeghfard; Isabelle Delpierre; Sophie Henrard; Niloufar Sadeghi; Jean-Christophe Goffard; Serge Goldman; Xavier De Tiège; Javier Colomina; David Navarro

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.17.20214429 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Neurological disability MESHD associated with multiple sclerosis and immunosuppressive MESHD or immunomodulatory therapy which is administered for it may increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and its morbidity/mortality. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the infection rate and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in patients with multiple sclerosis MESHD ( MS MESHD) Methods: One thousand and three hundred and sixty one MS MESHD patients from Fars province, south of Iran, were interviewed by phone from April 3 to June 20, 2020. Basic demographic data, information about MS disease MESHD and any symptoms or laboratory results relevant to COVID-19 were gathered and reviewed by treating neurologist and MS MESHD nurses. SPSS version 22 was used for data analysis. Results: 68 (5%) of MS MESHD patients were suspected cases and 8 (0.58%) of all patients with positive real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or chest CT were in the confirmed group. 5 cases of the confirmed TRANS group needed hospitalization. Two patients died while both of them had PPMS and were taking rituximab. The frequency rate of suspected cases with RRMS was 57 (87.7%), followed by PPMS 5 (7.7%) and CIS 2(3.1%). In the confirmed group 37.5% had RRMS, 50% had PPMS, 25% use corticosteroid drug, and 50% were on rituximab. 62.5% of confirmed cases TRANS had high disability level and need assistance to walk. 36.8% of suspected and 25% of the confirmed cases TRANS were on IFN-{beta}1; eventually all of them recovered well from COVID-19 infection MESHD. Conclusion: The present study showed that rate of developing COVID-19 in MS MESHD patients are similar to the general population and the frequency of PPMS phenotype, rituximab therapy and corticosteroid therapy were higher in the confirmed group.

    Guiding Austria through the COVID-19 Epidemics with a Forecast-Based Early Warning System

    Authors: Martin Bicher; Martin Zuba; Lukas Rainer; Florian Bachner; Claire Rippinger; Herwig Ostermann; Nikolas Popper; Stefan Thurner; Peter Klimek; Safaa Almazrouei; Juan M Lavista Ferres; Jane Eddleston; Chris Brookes; Christopher Harrison; Weiqi Liu; Tianyi Liu; Jin-Wen Song; Liangliang Sun; Fan Yang; Xin Zhang; Bo Zhang; Ming Shi; Fanping Meng; Yanning Song; Yongpei Yu; Jiqiu Wen; Qi Li; Qing Mao; Markus Maeurer; Alimuddin Zumla; Chen Yao; Weifen Xie; Fu-Sheng Wang; Anthony Atala; Ali Ghodsizad; Joshua M Hare

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.18.20214767 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background. The corona crisis hit Austria at the end of February 2020 with one of the first European superspreading events. In response, the governmental crisis unit commissioned a forecast consortium with regularly projections of case numbers and demand for hospital beds. Methods. We consolidated the output of three independent epidemiological models (ranging from agent-based micro simulation to parsimonious compartmental models) and published weekly short-term forecasts for the number of confirmed cases TRANS as well as estimates and upper bounds for the required hospital beds. Findings. Here, we report om four key contributions by which our forecasting and reporting system has helped shaping Austria's policy to navigate the crisis and re-open the country step-wise, namely (i) when and where case numbers are expected to peak during the first wave, (ii) how to safely re-open the country after passing this peak, (iii) how to evaluate the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions and (iv) provide hospital managers guidance to plan health-care capacities. Interpretation. Complex mathematical epidemiological models play an important role in guiding governmental responses during pandemic crises, provided they are used as a monitoring system to detect epidemiological change points. For policy-makers, the media and the public, it might be problematic to distinguish short-term forecasts from worst-case scenarios with undefined levels of certainty, creating distrust in the legitimacy and accuracy of such models. However, when used as a short-term forecast-based monitoring system, the models can inform decisions to ease or strengthen governmental responses.

    Dataset of COVID-19 outbreak and potential predictive features in the USA

    Authors: Arezoo Haratian; Hadi Fazelinia; Zeinab Maleki; pouria Ramazi; Hao Wang; Mark Lewis; Russell Greiner; David Wishart; Bruno Masquelier; Jean Michel Heraud; C. Jessica E. Metcalf; Benjamin L Rice; Javier Colomina; David Navarro

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.16.20214098 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    This dataset provides information related to the outbreak of COVID-19 disease in the United States, including data from each of 3142 US counties from the beginning of the outbreak (January 2020) until September 2020. This data is collected from many public online databases and includes the daily number of COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS and deaths, as well as 33 features that may be relevant to the pandemic dynamics: demographic, geographic, climatic, traffic, public-health, social-distancing-policy adherence, and political characteristics of each county. We anticipate many researchers will use this dataset to train models that can predict the spread of COVID-19 and to identify the key driving factors.

    Age TRANS-Stratified SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD Fatality Rates in New York City estimated from serological data

    Authors: Chloe G Rickards; A. Marm Kilpatrick; Deborah A. Lawlor; Fady I. Sharara; Scott M. Nelson; Maryam Poursadeghfard; Isabelle Delpierre; Sophie Henrard; Niloufar Sadeghi; Jean-Christophe Goffard; Serge Goldman; Xavier De Tiège; Javier Colomina; David Navarro

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.16.20214023 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: COVID-19 has killed hundreds of thousands of people in the US and >1 million globally. Estimating the age TRANS-specific infection fatality rate (IFR) of SARS-CoV-2 for different populations is crucial for assessing the fatality of COVID-19 and for appropriately allocating limited vaccine supplies to minimize mortality. Objective: To estimate IFRs for COVID-19 in New York City and compare them to IFRs from other countries. Design, Setting, Participants: We used data from a published serosurvey of 5946 individuals 18 years or older conducted April 19-28, 2020 with time series of COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS and deaths MESHD for five age TRANS-classes from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene MESHD. We inferred age TRANS-specific IFRs using a Bayesian framework that accounted for the distribution of delay between infection MESHD and seroconversion and infection MESHD and death MESHD. Main Outcome and Measure: Infection fatality rate. Results: We found that IFRs increased approximately 77-fold with age TRANS, with a nearly linear increase on a log scale, from 0.07% (0.055%-0.086%) in 18-44 year olds to 5.4% (4.3%-6.3%) in individuals 75 and older. New York City IFRs were higher for 18-44 year olds and 45-64 year olds (0.58%; 0.45%-0.75%) than Spanish, English, and Swiss populations, but IFRs for 75+ year olds were lower than for English populations and similar to Spanish and Swiss populations. Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that the age TRANS-specific fatality of COVID-19 differs among developed countries and raises questions about factors underlying these differences.

    Pulmonary Imaging Findings in Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19): A Series of 140 Latin American Children TRANS

    Authors: Carlos Ugas-Charcape; María Elena Ucar; Judith Almanza-Aranda; Emiliana Rizo-Patrón; Claudia Lazarte Rantes; Pablo Caro-Domínguez; Lina Cadavid; Lizbet Pérez-Marrero; Tatiana Fazecas; Lucía Gómez; Mariana Sánchez Curiel; Walter Pacheco; Ana Rizzi; Andrés García-Bayce; Efigenia Bendeck; Walter Montaño; Pedro Daltro; José D. Arce V

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-94820/v1 Date: 2020-10-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2 virus), which resulted in the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic of 2020, has particularly affected Latin America. Objective:The purpose of the study was to analyze the imaging findings of pulmonary COVID-19 in a large pediatric series.Materials and methods: Children TRANS with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection confirmed TRANS by either quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from nasopharyngeal swabs or presence of circulating IgM and/or IgG antibodies SERO and who underwent chest radiograph (CXR) and/or computed tomography (CT) were included in this retrospective multicenter study. Three pediatric radiologists independently reviewed CXRs and CTs to identify the presence, localization, distribution and extension of pulmonary lesions MESHD. Results:One hundred and forty children TRANS (71 female TRANS; median age TRANS 6.2 years; interquartile range 1.6-12.1 years) were included in the study. Peribronchial thickening (93%), ground glass opacities (79%) and vascular engorgement (63%) were the most frequent findings on 131 CXRs. Ground glass opacities (91%), vascular engorgement (84%) and peribronchial thickening (72%) were the most frequent findings on 32 CTs. Peribronchial thickening (100%), ground-glass opacities (90%) and pulmonary vascular engorgement MESHD (74%) were common CXR findings in asymptomatic TRANS patients (n=20). Consolidation and ground-glass opacity were significantly higher in patients who needed ICU admission or expired, in contrast with patients with a good outcome (48% and 91%, vs 24% and 70% p<0.05, respectively).Conclusion: Asymptomatic TRANS children TRANS and those with mild symptoms of COVID-19 showed mainly peribronchial thickening, ground-glass opacities and pulmonary HP vascular engorgement on CXRs. Ground glass opacity and consolidation, were more common in patients who required ICU admission or died. 

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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