Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (127)

Fever (120)

Cough (95)

Fatigue (30)

Hypertension (21)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1131 - 1140 records in total 1304
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    Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 in Hainan, China

    Authors: Shijiao Yan; Xingyue Song; Feng Lin; Haiyan Zhu; Xiaozhi Wang; Min Li; Jianwen Ruan; Changfeng Lin; Xiaoran Liu; Qiang Wu; Zhiqian Luo; Wenning Fu; Song Chen; Yong Yuan; Shengxing Liu; Jinjian Yao; Chuanzhu Lv

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.19.20038539 Date: 2020-03-23 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Since January 2020, coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (Covid-19) has spread rapidly and developing the pandemic model around the world. Data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients in an imported cases as model in island outside Wuhan. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study included all 168 confirmed cases TRANS of Covid-19 in Hainan province from 22 January 2020 to 13 March 2020. Cases were confirmed TRANS by real-time RT-PCR and were analysed for demographic, clinical, radiological and laboratory data. Results: Of 168 patients, 160 have been discharged, 6 have died and 2 remain hospitalized. The median age TRANS was 51.0 years and 51.8% were females TRANS. 129 (76.8%) patients were imported cases, and 118 (70.2%), 51 (30.4%) and 52 (31%) of patients lived in Wuhan or traveled TRANS to Wuhan, had contact with Covid-19 patients, or had contact with Wuhan residents, respectively. The most common symptoms at onset TRANS of illness were fever HP fever MESHD (65.5%), dry cough MESHD cough HP (48.8%) and expectoration (32.1%). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (60.2%). The elderly TRANS people with diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and CVD are more likely to develop severe cases. Follow-up of 160 discharged patients found that 20 patients (12.5%) had a positive RT-PCR test results of pharyngeal swabs or anal swabs or fecal. Conclusions: In light of the rapid spread of Covid-19 around the world, early diagnosis and quarantine is important to curb the spread of Covid-19 and intensive treatments in early stage is to prevent patients away from critical condition.

    Covid-19 dynamics in Albania: first estimates and projections

    Authors: Erida Gjini

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.20.20038141 Date: 2020-03-23 Source: medRxiv

    The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic is one of the biggest challenges healthcare systems worldwide have ever had to face. To curb transmission TRANS many countries have adopted social distancing measures and travel TRANS restrictions. Estimating the effect of these measures in each context is challenging and requires mathematical models of the transmission TRANS dynamics. Projections for the future course of the epidemic strongly rely on model predictions and accurate representation of real-time data as they accumulate. Here I develop an SEIR modeling framework for Covid-19, to evaluate reported cases and fatalities, and to enable forecasting using evidence-based Bayesian parameter estimation. This Bayesian framework offers a tool to parametrize real-time dynamics of Covid-19 cases, and explore the effect of control as it unfolds in any setting. I apply the model to Covid-19 data from Albania, where drastic control measures were put in place already on the day of the first confirmed case TRANS. Evaluating the dynamics of reported cases 9-31 March 2020, I estimate parameters and make preliminary projections. Three weeks into the measures, Albanian data already indicate a strong signature of more than 40% transmission TRANS reduction, and lend support to a progressively increasing effect of control measures rather than a static one. In the Albanian setting, the model and data match well, projecting the peak of the outbreak may be around 5-15 April, and be contained within 300 active confirmed cases TRANS if control continues with the same trend. This framework can be used to understand the quantitative effects of different control measures in real-time, and inform adaptive intervention for success in other settings.

    Optimization of Microbiological Laboratory Detection Strategy for Patients in A Designated Hospital Treating Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia HP in Anhui Province

    Authors: Wenjiao Chang; Yuru Shi; Yingjie Qi; Jiaxing Liu; Ting Liu; Zhaowu Chen; Wenjing Zhang; Mengmeng Wang; Dongfeng Liu; Ming Yin; Jing Xu; Yun Yang; Xiaowu Zhu; Jing Ge; Shu Zhu; Yong Gao; Xiaoling Ma

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.21.20039065 Date: 2020-03-23 Source: medRxiv

    Novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (NCP) is an emerging, highly contagious community acquired pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (CAP) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). Highly efficient and accurate microbiological laboratory assay is essential to confirm the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, rule out other pathogens that can cause CAP, and monitor secondary infections. Here, we enrolled and provide microbiological analysis for 129 suspected and 52 transferred confirmed NCP patients hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) from Jan 21 to Feb 29, 2020. By analyzing the dual swab samples (sputum and pharyngeal) from 129 suspected patients with realtime RT-PCR, we confirmed 33 SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD, with two co-infection MESHD cases with adenovirus or rhinovirus. We also used multiplex PCR to detect 13 common respiratory tract pathogens in 96 non-NCP patients, and found that 30 patients (31.25%) were infected MESHD with at least one respiratory tract pathogen that may cause CAP. Further, we performed bacterial and fungal cultures as well as fungal serologic tests SERO and found that there is no secondary bacterial/ fungal infections MESHD infections in confirmed TRANS NCP patients. Our studies suggest that, during the epidemic of NCP in Anhui province, there was a certain proportion of infection and co-infection MESHD of other common pathogens of CAP, and the secondary bacterial and fungal infection MESHD is not detectable in NCP patients. In comparison with SARS-CoV-2 detection alone, this optimized strategy combining multiple pathogen detection for identification of NCP and other CAP patients as well as cultures and serologic tests SERO for confirmed patients increases the diagnosis efficiency and facilitates the personalized medication.

    Screening and managing of suspected or confirmed novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients: experiences from a tertiary hospital outside Hubei province

    Authors: Hong Pu; Yujun Xu; Gordon S. Doig; Yan Zhou

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.20.20038679 Date: 2020-03-23 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To report our experiences screening and managing patients with suspected or confirmed novel coronavirus (COVID-19) disease using a hospital-specific protocol. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting: A 1,200 bed tertiary care teaching hospital in Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Participants: 802 adults TRANS presenting to hospital with concerns of having COVID-19, 1,246 inpatients and 2,531 hospital visitors. Interventions: Screening and management of patients using a hospital-specific protocol, which included fever HP fever MESHD triage, monitoring visitors and patients, emergency response, personnel training for healthcare team members, health education for patients and family, medical materials management, disinfection and wastes disposal protocols. Results: Between 23 January and 28 February 2020, 73 people were identified as having fever HP fever MESHD plus respiratory signs with/without a history of exposure and were tested for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) by our hospital lab using RT PCR. Forty-five of these 73 people were subsequently excluded based on one negative RT PCR result plus positive results to quick screening tests for flu or other respiratory viruses. The remaining 28 people received a second RT PCR test 24 h later. Three people were confirmed positive for COVID-19 based on two consecutive positive RT PCR tests whilst 25 people were excluded based on two consecutive negative tests. The three COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS received non-critical care. There were no new infections of medical staff or new infections of other hospital inpatients. Conclusions: All three cases were detected as a result of vigilant monitoring of hospital visitors. Whilst screening out-patients presenting to a fever HP fever MESHD clinic remains important, monitoring visitors must not be overlooked.

    Basic and effective reproduction numbers TRANS of COVID-19 cases in South Korea excluding Sincheonji cases

    Authors: Jeongeun Hwang; Hyunjung Park; Sung-Han Kim; Jiwon Jung; Namkug Kim

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.19.20039347 Date: 2020-03-23 Source: medRxiv

    In February and March 2020, COVID-19 epidemic in South Korea met a large black swan effect by a Sincheonji cult mass infection in Daegu-Gyeongbuk area. The black swan made it difficult to evaluate that the current policies for infection MESHD prevention including social distancing, closing schools, hand washing, and wearing masks good enough or not. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated basic reproduction number TRANS ( R0 TRANS) and time-dependent reproduction number TRANS (Rt) of confirmed cases TRANS based on various kinds of populations, including total, Daegu-Geyoengbuk, except-Daegu-Gyeongbuk, Sincheonji, and except-Sincheonji. In total, it seems the infection is going to be under control, but this is never true because in the except-Sincheonji and except-Daegu-Geyongbuk cases, R0 TRANS is still above 1.0, and Rt is drifting around 1.0. This study could be used to determine government policies in the near future.

    Estimating the reproduction number TRANS of COVID-19 in Iran using epidemic modeling

    Authors: Ebrahim Sahafizadeh; Samaneh Sartoli

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.20.20038422 Date: 2020-03-23 Source: medRxiv

    Background: As reported by Iranian governments, the first cases of coronavirus (COVID-19) infections confirmed TRANS in Qom, Iran on February 19, 2020 (30 Bahman 1398). The number of identified cases afterward increased rapidly and the novel coronavirus spread to all provinces of the country. This study aimed to fit an epidemic model to the reported cases data to estimate the basic reproduction number TRANS ( R_0 TRANS) of COVID-19 in Iran. Methods: We used data from February 21, 2020, to April 21, 2020, on the number of cases reported by Iranian governments and we employed the SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Removed) epidemic spreading model to fit the transmission TRANS model to the reported cases data by tuning the parameters in order to estimate the basic reproduction number TRANS of COVID-19 in Iran. Results: The value of reproduction number TRANS was estimated 4.86 in the first week and 4.5 in the second week. it decreased from 4.29 to 2.37 in the next four weeks. At the seventh week of the outbreak the reproduction number TRANS was reduced below 1. Conclusions: The results indicate that the basic reproduction number TRANS of COVID-19 was significantly larger than one in the early stages of the outbreak. However, implementing social distancing and preventing travelling TRANS on Nowruz (Persian New Year) effectively reduced the reproduction number TRANS. Although the results indicate that reproduction number TRANS is below one, it is necessary to continue social distancing and control travelling TRANS to prevent causing a second wave of outbreak.

    An Update on SARS-COV-2/COVID-19 with Particular Reference on Its Clinical Pathology, Pathogenesis, Immunopathology and Mitigation Strategies – A Review

    Authors: Kuldeep Dhama; Shailesh Kumar Patel; Mamta Pathak; Mohd. Iqbal Yatoo; Ruchi Tiwari; Yashpal Singh Malik; Rajendra Singh; Ranjit Sah; Ali A. Rabaan; D. Katterine Bonilla-Aldana; Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales

    id:10.20944/preprints202003.0348.v1 Date: 2020-03-23 Source: Preprints.org

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD - Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in early December 2019 in China and attained a pandemic situation worldwide by its rapid spread to nearly 167 countries with 287.239 confirmed cases TRANS and 11.921 human deaths with a case fatality rate (CFR) of around 4 per cent. Bats were considered as the reservoir host, and the search of a probable intermediate host is still going on. Animals have anticipated culprit of SARS-CoV-2 as of now. The disease is mainly manifested by pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and related respiratory signs and symptoms, but the involvement of the gastrointestinal system and nervous system is also suggested. The severe form of the disease associated with death MESHD is mainly reported in older and immune-compromised patients with pre-existing disease history. Death MESHD in severe cases is attributed to respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD associated with hyperinflammation. Cytokine storm syndrome associated with rampant inflammation MESHD in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is considered as the leading killer of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients were reported with higher levels of many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines like IFN-g, IL-1b, IP-10, and MCP-1. Furthermore, severe cases of COVID-19 revealed higher levels of TNF-α, G-CSF, and MIP-1A. Blood SERO profile of the COVID-19 patients exhibits lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia HP thrombocytopenia MESHD and RNAaemia along with increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in pregnant women does not lead to fetus mortalities unlike other zoonotic coronaviruses like SARS-CoV MESHD and MERS-CoV, with no evidence of intrauterine transmission TRANS to neonates. Rapid and confirmatory diagnostics have been developed, and high efforts are being made to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. In the absence of any virus-specific therapeutic, internationally health care authorities are recommending adoption of effective prevention and control measures to counter and contain this pandemic virus. This paper is an overview of this virus and the disease with a particular focus on SARS-COV-2 / COVID-19 clinical pathology, pathogenesis and immunopathology along with a few recent research developments.

    Modelling the epidemiological trend and behavior of COVID-19 in Italy

    Authors: Alessandro Rovetta; Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula; Lucia Castaldo

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.19.20038968 Date: 2020-03-23 Source: medRxiv

    As of May 14, 2020, Italy has been one of the red hotspots for the COVID-19 pandemic. With over 220,000 confirmed cases TRANS and almost 33,000 deaths MESHD reported from February, it is necessary to fully understand the spread of COVID-19 in this country. By S.E.I.R. simulation, we estimated the most representative basic reproduction number TRANS R0 TRANS for the three most affected regions from February 22 to March 14, 2020. In doing so, we have been able to evaluate the consistency of the first containment measures until the end of April, as well as identify possible SARS-CoV-2 local behavior mutations and specificities. Next to that, through new estimates of the infection MESHD mortality rate, we recalculated a more plausible number of real infected. Finally, given the absolutely anomalous trend of the Lombardy region, we looked for correlations between COVID-19 total cases and air pollutants such as PM 10 and PM 2.5.

    A SIDARTHE Model of COVID-19 Epidemic in Italy

    Authors: Giulia Giordano; Franco Blanchini; Raffaele Bruno; Patrizio Colaneri; Alessandro Di Filippo; Angela Di Matteo; Marta Colaneri; the COVID19 IRCCS San Matteo Pavia Task Force

    id:2003.09861v1 Date: 2020-03-22 Source: arXiv

    In late December 2019, a novel strand of Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing a severe, potentially fatal respiratory syndrome MESHD (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and is causing outbreaks in multiple world countries, soon becoming a pandemic. Italy has now become the most hit country outside of Asia: on March 16, 2020, the Italian Civil Protection documented a total of 27980 confirmed cases TRANS and 2158 deaths of people tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the context of an emerging infectious disease outbreak, it is of paramount importance to predict the trend of the epidemic in order to plan an effective control strategy and to determine its impact. This paper proposes a new epidemic model that discriminates between infected individuals depending on whether they have been diagnosed and on the severity of their symptoms. The distinction between diagnosed and non-diagnosed is important because non-diagnosed individuals are more likely to spread the infection MESHD than diagnosed ones, since the latter are typically isolated, and can explain misperceptions of the case fatality rate and of the seriousness of the epidemic phenomenon. Being able to predict the amount of patients that will develop life-threatening symptoms is important since the disease frequently requires hospitalisation (and even Intensive Care Unit admission) and challenges the healthcare system capacity. We show how the basic reproduction number TRANS can be redefined in the new framework, thus capturing the potential for epidemic containment. Simulation results are compared with real data on the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy, to show the validity of the model and compare different possible predicted scenarios depending on the adopted countermeasures.

    Estimating the serial interval TRANS of the novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19): A statistical analysis using the public data in Hong Kong from January 16 to February 15, 2020 

    Authors: Shi Zhao; Daozhou Gao; Zian Zhuang; Marc KC Chong; Yongli Cai; Jinjun Ran; Peihua Cao; Kai Wang; Yijun Lou; Weiming Wang; Lin Yang; Daihai He; Maggie H Wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-18805/v3 Date: 2020-03-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The emerging virus, severe acute r espiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD(SARS-CoV-2), has caused a large outbreak of novel c oronavirus disease MESHD(COVID-19) in Wuhan, China since December 2019. As of February 15, there were 56 COVID-19 cases confirmed TRANS in Hong Kong since the first case with symptom onset TRANS on January 23, 2020. Methods: Based on the publicly available surveillance data, we identified 21 transmission TRANS events, which occurred in Hong Kong, and had primary cases TRANS known, as of February 15, 2020. An interval censored likelihood framework is adopted to fit three different distributions, Gamma, Weibull and lognormal, that govern the SI of COVID-19. We selection the distribution according to the Akaike information criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc). Findings: We found the Lognormal distribution performed lightly better than the other two distributions in terms of the AICc. Assuming a Lognormal distribution model, we estimated the mean of SI at 4.9 days (95%CI: 3.6−6.2) and SD of SI at 4.4 days (95%CI: 2.9−8.3) by using the information of all 21 transmission TRANS events in Hong Kong. Conclusion: The SI of COVID-19 may be shorter than the preliminary estimates in previous works. Given the likelihood that SI could be shorter than the incubation period TRANS, pre-symptomatic transmission TRANS may occur, and extra efforts on timely contact tracing TRANS and quarantine are crucially needed in combating the COVID-19 outbreak. 

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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