Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Infections (534)

Disease (444)

Death (383)

Coronavirus Infections (263)

Pneumonia (106)

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (110)

Fever (106)

Cough (86)

Fatigue (27)

Hypertension (16)


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    A Partially Observable MDP Approach for Sequential Testing for Infectious Diseases MESHD such as COVID-19

    Authors: Rahul Singh; Fang Liu; Ness B. Shroff

    id:2007.13023v1 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: arXiv

    The outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is unfolding as a major international crisis whose influence extends to every aspect of our daily lives. Effective testing allows infected individuals to be quarantined, thus reducing the spread of COVID-19, saving countless lives, and helping to restart the economy safely and securely. Developing a good testing strategy can be greatly aided by contact tracing TRANS that provides health care providers information about the whereabouts of infected patients in order to determine whom to test. Countries that have been more successful in corralling the virus typically use a ``test, treat, trace TRANS, test'' strategy that begins with testing individuals with symptoms, traces contacts TRANS of positively tested individuals via a combinations of patient memory, apps, WiFi, GPS, etc., followed by testing their contacts, and repeating this procedure. The problem is that such strategies are myopic and do not efficiently use the testing resources. This is especially the case with COVID-19, where symptoms may show up several days after the infection MESHD (or not at all, there is evidence to suggest that many COVID-19 carriers TRANS are asymptotic TRANS, but may spread the virus). Such greedy strategies, miss out population areas where the virus may be dormant and flare up in the future. In this paper, we show that the testing problem can be cast as a sequential learning-based resource allocation problem with constraints, where the input to the problem is provided by a time-varying social contact graph obtained through various contact tracing TRANS tools. We then develop efficient learning strategies that minimize the number of infected individuals. These strategies are based on policy iteration and look-ahead rules. We investigate fundamental performance SERO bounds, and ensure that our solution is robust to errors in the input graph as well as in the tests themselves.

    Population Risk Factors for COVID-19 Deaths MESHD in Nigeria at Subnational Level

    Authors: Zubaida Hassan; Muhammad Jawad Hashim; Gulfaraz Khan

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0621.v1 Date: 2020-07-25 Source:

    Nigeria is the most populous country in the African continent. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for COVID-19 prevalence SERO and deaths MESHD in all 6 geopolitical regions and 37 states in Nigeria. We analyzed the data retrieved from various sources, including Nigeria CDC, Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics, Unicef-Nigeria multiple indicator cluster survey and the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington. We examined 4 clinical risk factors ( prevalence SERO of TB, HIV, smoking and BCG vaccination coverage) and 5 sociodemographic factors ( age TRANS ≥65, population density, literacy rate, unemployment and GDP per capita). Multivariate modeling was conducted using generalized linear model. Our analysis showed that the incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases differed widely across the 37 states, from 0.09 per 100,000 in Kogi to 83.7 in Lagos. However, more than 70% of confirmed cases TRANS were concentrated in just 7 states: Lagos, Abuja, Oyo, Kano, Edo, Rivers and Delta. Case mortality rate (CMR) per million population also varied considerably, with Lagos, Abuja and Edo having CMR above 9. On bivariate analysis, higher CMR correlated positively with GDP and to a lesser extent with TB and population density. On multivariate analysis, which is more definitive, states with higher HIV prevalence SERO and BCG coverage had lower CMR, while high GDP states had a greater CMR. This study indicates that COVID-19 has disproportionately affected certain states in Nigeria. Population susceptibility factors include higher economic development but not literacy or unemployment. Death MESHD rates were mildly lower in states with higher HIV prevalence SERO and BCG vaccination coverage.

    An Analysis of Outbreak Dynamics and Intervention Effects for COVID-19 Transmission TRANS in Europe

    Authors: Wei Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20158873 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    As of March 13, 2020, Europe became the center of COVID-19 pandemic. In order to prevent further spread and slow down the increase in confirmed cases TRANS and deaths MESHD, many countries in European Union have taken some interventions since mid-March. In this study, a metapopulation model was used to model the outbreak of COVID-19 in Europe and the effectiveness of these interventions were also estimated. The findings suggested that many countries successfully kept the reproduction number TRANS R_t less than 1 (e.g., Belgium, Germany, Spain, and France) while other countries exhibited R_t greater than 1 (e.g., United Kingdom, Cyprus). Based on the assumed reopen strategy, this study also revealed that a 2-week delay in response predicted approximately 2,000 deaths MESHD and 200,000 cases (daily peak value), while a 3-week delay predicted approximately 5,000 deaths MESHD and 600,000 cases (daily peak value). Therefore, a quick response upon signs of a re-emerging pandemic in the world is highly imperative to mitigate potential loss of life and to keep transmission TRANS of Covid-19 under control.

    Weak association of coinfection MESHD by SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses with severe cases and death MESHD

    Authors: Larissa Fernandes-Matano; Irma Eloisa Monroy-Muñoz; Luis Antonio Uribe-Noguez; María de los Angeles Hernández-Cueto; Brenda Sarquiz-Martínez; Héctor Daniel Pardav&eacute-Alejandre; Andrea Santos Coy-Arechavaleta; Julio Elias Alvarado-Yaah; Teresita Rojas-Mendoza; Clara Esperanza Santacruz-Tinoco; Concepción Grajales-Muñiz; Víctor Hugo Borja-Aburto; José Esteban Muñoz-Medina

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.22.20159400 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus described for the first time in China in December 2019. This virus can cause a disease MESHD that ranges in spectrum from asymptomatic TRANS to severe respiratory disease MESHD with multiorgan failure, and the most severe cases are associated with some comorbidities and patient age TRANS. However, there are patients who do not have those risk factors who still develop serious disease MESHD. In this study, we identified the presence of other respiratory viruses in positive cases of COVID-19 in Mexico to determine if any coinfections MESHD were correlated with more severe manifestations of COVID-19. We analysed 103 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 using RT-qPCR for the detection of 16 other respiratory viruses.Of the cases analysed, 14 (13.6%) were cases of coinfection MESHD, and 92% of them never required hospitalization, even when comorbidities and advanced age TRANS were involved. There were not significant differences between the presence of comorbidities and the mean ages of the groups TRANS. These results suggest that coinfection MESHD is not related to more severe COVID-19 and that, depending on the virus involved, it could even lead to a better prognosis. We believe that our findings may lay the groundwork for new studies aimed at determining the biological mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs and for proposing corresponding strategies to limit the progression to severe cases of COVID-19.

    CCOFEE-GI Study: Colombian COVID19 First Experience in Gastroentrology. Characterization of digestive manifestations in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at a highly complex institution in Bogota D.C., Colombia


    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20161604 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed an important threat to the human health, healthcare systems, economy, and structure of societies. In Colombia, the first case was diagnosed on March 6, 2020 , with exponential progressive growth, and there were >200,000 confirmed cases TRANS as of July 20, 2020, in this cross-sectional, analytical, and observational study, we focused on the demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical characteristics of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD at a highly complex institution in Latinamerica, with special emphasis on gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods: Demographic and clinical data were collected, results related to the outcomes such as hospitalization time, admission to ICU, need for orotracheal intubation, and death MESHD were also included. Statistical analyses were conducted using Stata software V.15. Results: We included 72 patients RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 (34 women and 38 men) with age TRANS 47.5 17.7 years; 17 (23.6%) presented at least one of the gastrointestinal symptoms ( nausea MESHD nausea/vomiting HP/ vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP, and/or diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP). 13 (76.47%) presented with diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP, 29.41% with nausea MESHD nausea/vomiting HP/ vomiting MESHD, and five (29.41%) with abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP. Diarrhea MESHD Diarrhea HP in 18.06% of all those infected with SARS-CoV-2 at the time of consultation, which was the most common digestive symptom. No significant differences were observed in requirement for endotracheal intubation, hospitalization, ICU admission, and fatal outcome between the NGIS and GIS groups (p:0.671, 0.483, 1,000, and 1,000). Conclusion: In our study, patients with gastrointestinal symptoms had no significant differences in disease MESHD severity, admission to ICU or death MESHD compared to those who did not have such symptoms.

    When did COVID-19 start? - Optimal inference of time ZERO

    Authors: Zheng-Meng Zhai; Yong-Shang Long; Ming Tang; Zonghua Liu; Ying-Cheng Lai

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    According to the official report, the first case of COVID-19 and the first death MESHD in the United States occurred on January 20 and February 29, 2020, respectively. On April 21, California reported that the first death MESHD in the state occurred on February 6, implying that community spreading of COVID-19 might have started earlier than previously thought. Exactly what is time ZERO, i.e., when did COVID-19 emerge and begin to spread in the US and other countries? We develop a comprehensive predictive modeling framework to address this question. Using available data of confirmed infections TRANS infections MESHD to obtain the optimal values of the key parameters, we validate the model and demonstrate its predictive power. We then carry out an inverse inference analysis to determine time ZERO for ten representative States in the US, plus New York city, UK, Italy, and Spain. The main finding is that, in both the US and Europe, COVID-19 started around the new year day.

    SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey in Health Care Workers of the Veneto Region

    Authors: Mario Plebani; Andrea Padoan; Ugo Fedeli; Elena Schievano; Elena Vecchiato; Giuseppe Lippi; Giuliana Lo Cascio; Stefano Porru; Giorgio Palu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20160457 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses formidable challenges to all health care systems. Serological assays SERO may improve disease MESHD management when appropriately used, for better understanding the antibody SERO responses mounted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and for assessing its real prevalence SERO. Although testing the whole population is impratical, well-designed serosurveys in selected subpopulations in specific risk groups may provide valuable information. Aim: we evaluated the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in health care workers who underwent molecular testing with reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in the main hospitals of the Veneto Region by measuring specific antibodies SERO (Abs). Methods: both IgM and IgG antibodies SERO against SARS-Cov-2 S-antigen and N-protein were measured using a validated chemiluminescent analytical system (CLIA) called Maglumi 2000 Plus (New Industries Biomedical EngineeringCo., Ltd [Snibe], Shenzhen, China) Results: A total of 8285 health care workers were tested. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies SERO (IgM, IgG or both) were detectable in 378 cases (4.6%, 95% CI 4.1-5.0%). Seroconversion was observed in 4.4% women and 5% men, but the difference was not significant. Although detectable antibodies SERO were found in all severe COVID-19 patients (100%), lower seropositivity was found in mild disease MESHD (83%) and the lowest prevalence SERO (58%) was observed in asymptomatic TRANS subjects. Conclusion: Seroprevalence SERO surveys are of utmost importance for understanding the rate of population that has already developed antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. The present study has the statistical power to define precisely the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of health workers in our region, with its prevalence SERO (4.6%) reflecting a relatively low circulation. Symptomatic individuals or those hospitalized for medical care were 100% antibody SERO positive, whilst Abs were only detectable in 58% of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS.

    COVID-19: A Data-Driven Mean-Field-Type Game Perspective

    Authors: Hamidou Tembine

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20160853 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    In this article, a class of mean-field-type games with discrete-continuous state spaces is considered. We establish Bellman systems which provide sufficiency conditions for mean-field-type equilibria in state-and-mean-field-type feedback form. We then derive unnormalized master adjoint systems (MASS). The methodology is shown to be flexible enough to capture multi-class interaction in epidemic propagation in which multiple authorities are risk-aware atomic decision-makers and individuals are risk-aware non-atomic decision-makers. Based on MASS, we present a data-driven modelling and analytics for mitigating Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). The model integrates untested cases, age TRANS-structure, decision-making, gender TRANS, pre-existing health conditions, location, testing capacity, hospital capacity, mobility map on local areas, in-city, inter-cities, and international. It shown that the data-driven model can capture most of the reported data on COVID-19 on confirmed cases TRANS, deaths MESHD, recovered, number of testing and number of active cases in 66+ countries. The model also reports non-Gaussianity and non-exponential properties in 15+ countries.

    Oral delivery of SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccines using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium as a carrier TRANS in rat

    Authors: Dezhi Yang; Dan Zhu; Yue Meng; Aaodeng Qimuge; Bilige Bilige; Tegexi Baiyin; Temuqile Temuqile; Shana Chen; Siqin Borjigen; Huricha Baigude

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.217174 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: bioRxiv

    The 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is the disease MESHD that has been identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the prophylactic treatment of SARS-CoV-2 is still under investigation. The effective delivery of eukaryotic expression plasmids to the immune systems inductive cells constitutes an essential requirement for the generation of effective DNA vaccines. Here, we have explored the use of Salmonella typhimurium as vehicles to deliver expression plasmids orally. Attenuated Salmonella phoP harboring eukaryotic expression plasmids that encoded spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was administered orally to Wistar rats. Rats were immunized orally with Salmonella that carried a eukaryotic expression plasmid once a week for three consecutive weeks. The efficiency of the vaccination procedure was due to the transfer of the expression plasmid from the bacterial carrier TRANS to the mammalian host. Evidence for such an event could be obtained in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that all immunized animals generated humoral immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, indicating that a Salmonella-based vaccine carrying the Spike gene can elicit SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune responses in rats, and may be useful for the development of a protective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Awareness of Coronavirus Disease MESHD From Conception to Delivery: Antenatal Mental Journey Breaking Anxiety HP During Outbreak

    Authors: Rabia Merve Erbiyik Palalioglu; Ozan Karadeniz; Gokce Ipek Aytok; Batuhan Palalioglu; Gizem Nur Koyan; Halil Ibrahim Erbiyik; Murat Muhcu

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychological impact of the coronavirus disease MESHD on women sensitized by pregnancy after the first case was confirmed TRANS in Turkey, which has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. This study also intends to help developing preventive measures for pregnants, reducing infection MESHD incidence, developing solutions to protect public health, and establishing whether pregnants have sufficient knowledge and awareness to manage this situation.Methods This prospective study was conducted at two centers. A total of 529 pregnant women from all three trimesters were given questionnaires that consisted of 51 original questions.Results The period when anxiety HP was highest was the 2nd trimester, whereas women in the 1st trimester had the lowest level of anxiety HP. High levels of awareness were observed in patients with heart disease MESHD, but patients with diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP had a high level of anxiety HP. There was a statistically significant correlation between anxiety HP and awareness scores of the coronavirus disease MESHD.Conclusion The treatment and the long-term effects of the coronavirus disease MESHD remain unknown. It is important to maintain the mental and physical health of pregnants, who are in a more delicate condition in the society.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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