Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (127)

Fever (120)

Cough (95)

Fatigue (30)

Hypertension (21)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 51 - 60 records in total 1304
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    A machine learning based forecast model for the COVID-19 pandemic and investigation of the impact of government intervention on COVID-19 transmission TRANS in China

    Authors: Xingcheng Lu; Dehao Yuan; Wanying Chen; Jimmy Fung

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-73671/v1 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has killed over 0.3 million people, disrupted people’s normal lives, and severely restricted economic activities globally. In this work, a model for the next-day COVID-19 prediction in China was built based on the ensemble back-propagation neural network machine learning technique, Baidu migration index, internal travel TRANS flow index, and confirmed cases TRANS from the previous days. The 10-fold cross-validation results showed that the model performs well in estimating the next-day confirmed cases TRANS with a correlation coefficient of 0.97. To investigate the impacts of government interventions on the spread of this new coronavirus infection, the Baidu migration index and internal travel TRANS flow index multiplied by a factor of two were input into the trained machine learning model, and the results showed that the confirmed cases TRANS in the analyzed cities would increase dramatically. The correlation between the daily new confirmed cases TRANS and some meteorological factors were also analyzed, and the results revealed that these factors are not dominant in influencing the spread of this disease TRANS. Overall, the results of this work suggest that besides early diagnosis and medical treatment, a city lockdown policy is one of the most effective methods in suppressing the rapid spread of COVID-19. 

    Modeling COVID-19 Transmission TRANS in Africa: Country-wise Projections of Total and Severe Infections HP Under Different Lockdown Scenarios

    Authors: Isabel Frost; Jessica Craig; Gilbert Osena; Stephanie Hauck; Erta Kalanxhi; Emily Schueller; Oliver Gatalo; Yupeng Yany; Katie Tseng; Gary Lin; Eili Klein

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.20188102 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives As of August 24th 2020, there have been 1,084,904 confirmed cases TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 and 24,683 deaths across the African continent. Despite relatively lower numbers of cases initially, many African countries are now experiencing an exponential increase in case numbers. Estimates of the progression of disease and potential impact of different interventions are needed to inform policy making decisions. Herein, we model the possible trajectory of SARS-CoV-2 in 52 African countries under different intervention scenarios. Design We developed a compartmental model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS to estimate the COVID-19 case burden for all African countries while considering four scenarios: no intervention, moderate lockdown, hard lockdown, and hard lockdown with continued restrictions once lockdown is lifted. We further analyzed the potential impact of COVID-19 on vulnerable populations affected by HIV MESHD/ AIDS MESHD and TB. Results In the absence of an intervention, the most populous countries had the highest peaks in active projected number of infections MESHD with Nigeria having an estimated 645,081 severe infections HP infections MESHD. The scenario with a hard lockdown and continued post-lockdown interventions to reduce transmission TRANS was the most efficacious strategy for delaying the time to the peak and reducing the number of cases. In South Africa projected peak severe infections HP increase from 162,977 to 203,261, when vulnerable populations with HIV MESHD/ AIDS MESHD and TB are included in the analysis. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic is rapidly spreading across the African continent. Estimates of the potential impact of interventions and burden of disease are essential for policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the distribution of limited resources and to balance the economic costs of interventions with the potential for saving lives.

    Improve Nurses’ Engagement of Public Sector Hospitals in pandemic of COVID-19 through Authentic Leadership: Mediating role of Moral Emotions and Moderating role of Perceived Coronavirus Threat

    Authors: Dr. Muhammad Faisal Malik; Dr. Muhammad Asif Khan; Saqib Mahmood; Naveed Ilyas

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-73383/v1 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The study highlighted the issue of the engagement of nurses in the public hospital sector.Objectives: The objective of the current study was to determine the impact of authentic leadership on the engagement of nurses in the mediating role of moral emotions. The perceived threat of coronavirus was considered to be a boundary condition of the relationship. DesignMethod: The study was conducted in accordance with the Positivism Research Philosophy Guidelines, followed by a deductive approach and data was collected through self-directed questionnaires. 134 responses were collected from nurses working in various public sector hospitals operating in twin cities in Pakistan, in particular public sector hospitals where coronavirus patients are being treated. There are 277,402 confirmed cases TRANS of Coronavirus, being treated in 11 designation hospitals in twin cities of Pakistan. Results: The result was produced with the help of Amos. Path diagrams for mediation and moderation hypotheses were obtained and interpreted accordingly. The results showed that compassionate individuals were selfless even in the Covid-19 pandemic. Elevation and gratitude as a moral emotion have a more serious effect on the perceived threat to coronavirus.Conclusion: In the current scenario, the organization should identify the nursing staff with full compassion as it has been identified that the compassionate individual performs his or her duties even in the worst situation or during the Covid-19 pandemic.What is already known about the topic?Authentic Leadership are having the potential to influence their followers through personal and organizational Identification and then effect their cognitions.What this paper adds:The current study add novelty and expanded the knowledge about authentic leadership and theory of authentic leadership since it add:·     Perceived coronavirus threat as boundary condition·     Moral Emotions·     Engagement

    The Impact of Understaffing on Delaying Early-Stage SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak Detection

    Authors: BOUKARI WADJIDOU; Ivana Todorovic; Long Fenjie

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-73592/v1 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Having a minimum number of workers in medical services is widely regarded as a key  component of disease prevention. However, with the delay in confirming cases TRANS of SARS-CoV-2, the understaffed medical providers informed late and the virus has rapidly spread nationally. Methods This study, based on the Dempster-Shafer theory method and Evidential Reasoning, assesses the risks posed by understaffing for the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Results The findings examine six (6) factor risks and show that the understaffing risk in 2019 was 0.14% in magnitude in Wuhan, compared to 0.27% in Shenzhen. When ranking understaffing risks from low to high, the findings show that they increased from 3.979 to 3.983% and from 3.998 to 4.002% in Wuhan and Shenzhen, respectively. Conclusions We first conclude that from the SARS-CoV-1 to the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, understaffing risk equally increased at 0.004% in both cities. However, Shenzhen city is at a higher risk than Wuhan city. Second, Shenzhen understaffing delayed SARS-CoV-2 outbreak prevention 0.13% more than Wuhan city. We generally conclude that Shenzhen city could be doubly worse off than Wuhan city if it was the epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Therefore, public health care training and employment policy must be optimized to complete the lack not only in both cities but also in other cities to prevent future outbreaks.

    Spatial Distribution and Time Series Analysis of COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy: A Geospatial Perspective

    Authors: Muhammad Farhan Ul Moazzam; Tamkeen Urooj Paracha; Ghani Rahman; Byung Gul Lee; Nasir Farid; Adnan Arshad

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-73628/v1 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    The novel coronavirus pandemic disease MESHD (COVID-19) affected the whole globe, though there is lack of clinical studies and its epidemiological features. But as per the observation, it has been seen that most of COVID-19 infected MESHD patients show mild to moderate symptoms and they get better without any medical assistance due to better immune system to generate antibodies SERO against the novel coronavirus. In this study the active cases, serious cases, recovered cases, deaths MESHD and total confirmed cases TRANS have been analyzed using geospatial technique (IDW) with the time span of 2nd March to 3rd June 2020. As on 3rd June the total number of COVID-19 cases in Italy were 231,238, total deaths 33,310, serious cases 350, recovered cases 158,951 and active cases were 39,177 which has been reported by the Ministry of health, Italy. March 2nd – June 3rd 2020 a sum of 231, 238 cases has been reported in Italy out of which 38.68% cases reported in Lombardia region with death rate of 18% which is high from its national mortality rate followed by Emilia-Romagna (14.89% deaths), Piemonte (12.68% deaths), and Vento (10% deaths). As per the total cases in the region, the highest number of recoveries has been observed in Umbria (92.52%), followed by Basilicata (87%), Valle d'Aosta (86.85%) and Trento (84.54%).  The COVID-19 evolution in Italy has been particularly found in the major urban area i.e. Rome, Milan, Naples, Bologna and Florence. Geospatial technology played a vital role in this pandemic by tracking infected patient, active cases, and the recovered cases. Thus, monitoring and planning using geospatial technique is very important to control COVID-19 spread in the country.

    Postoperative mortality among surgical patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: semagn Abate; Bahiru Mantefardo; Bivash Basu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-73572/v2 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic puts perioperative providers and staff at risk of viral exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) during aerosol-generating procedures, particularly in asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS. However, the perioperative risk for adverse outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients remain uncertain and the topic of debate. The current study was designed to determine the postoperative mortality in COVID-19 patients based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the global published peer-reviewed literature.Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed/Medline; Science direct and LILACS from December 29, 2019, to August15, 2020, without language restriction. All observational studies reporting the prevalence SERO of mortality were included while case reports and reviews were excluded. The data from each study were extracted with two independent authors with a customized format excel sheet and the disagreements were resolved by the third author. The methodological quality of included studies was evaluated using a standardized critical appraisal Tool adapted from the Joanna Briggs Institute.Results: A total of 715 articles were identified from different databases and 45 articles were selected for evaluation after the successive screening. Twenty-three articles with 2947 participants were included. The meta-analysis revealed a very high global rate of postoperative mortality among COVID-19 patients of 20% (95% CI: 15 to 26) and a postoperative ICU admission rate of 15% (95% confidence interval (CI):10 to 21). Conclusion: The unexpected high postoperative mortality rate in SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients of 20% in the global literature mandates further scrutiny in assuring appropriate surgical indications and perioperative surgical safety measures in this vulnerable cohort of patientsRegistration: This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered in Prospero's international prospective register of systematic reviews (CRD42020203362) on August 10, 2020.

    Long, thin transmission chains TRANS of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 MESHD) may go undetected for several weeks at low to moderate reproductive numbers TRANS: Implications for containment and elimination strategy

    Authors: Gerry F Killeen; Deanna C Clemmer; Justin B Cox; Yetunde I Kayode; Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez; Harry E Taylor; Timothy P Endy; Joel R Wilmore; Gary Winslow; Sarah Tschudin-Sutter; Simon Fuchs; Julia Anna Bielicki; Hans Pargger; Martin Siegemund; Christian H. Nickel; Roland Bingisser; Michael Osthoff; Stefano Bassetti; Rita Schneider-Sliwa; Manuel Battegay; Hans H. Hirsch; Adrian Egli

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.20187948 Date: 2020-09-05 Source: medRxiv

    Especially at low to moderate reproductive numbers TRANS, the generally mild, non-specific symptomology of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) allows long MESHD, thin transmission chains TRANS to go undetected by passive surveillance over several weeks. This phenomenon has important implications: (1) Surveillance becomes less sensitive and reliable as an indicator of freedom from infection at the low reproductive numbers TRANS required to achieve elimination end points, passive surveillance systems may need to document an absence of new cases for at least a month to establish certainty of elimination. (2) Reproductive numbers TRANS should be kept as low as possible throughout such follow up periods without confirmed cases TRANS, to ensure such long, thin, undetected transmission chains TRANS all collapse before restrictions are eased and reproduction numbers TRANS are allowed to rebound. (3) While contact tracing TRANS systems may be highly effective when applied to large clusters in foci of elevated transmission TRANS where wide, rapidly expanding transmission chains TRANS are detected within two viral generations, large fractions of community transmission TRANS occurring through thinner, more extended transmission chains TRANS at lower reproductive numbers TRANS are often be too long to trace TRANS retrospectively and will be underrepresented in surveillance data. (4) Wherever surveillance systems are weak and/or younger age groups TRANS with lower rates of overt symptoms dominate transmission TRANS, containment effectiveness of contact tracing TRANS and isolation may be more severely limited, even at the higher reproduction numbers TRANS associated with larger outbreaks. While, contact tracing TRANS and isolation will remain vital for at least partially containing larger outbreaks, containment and elimination of SARS-CoV-2 will have to rely primarily upon the more burdensome and presumptive population-wide prevention measures that have proven so effective thus far against community transmission TRANS. Furthermore, these will have to be sustained at a much more stringent level and for longer periods after the last detected case than was necessary for SARS-CoV-1.

    Forecasting the outbreak of COVID-19 in Lebanon

    Authors: Omar El Deeb; Maya Jalloul; Lukas Schneider; Benedikt Gutsche; Dimitrije Markovic; Harry E Taylor; Timothy P Endy; Joel R Wilmore; Gary Winslow; Sarah Tschudin-Sutter; Simon Fuchs; Julia Anna Bielicki; Hans Pargger; Martin Siegemund; Christian H. Nickel; Roland Bingisser; Michael Osthoff; Stefano Bassetti; Rita Schneider-Sliwa; Manuel Battegay; Hans H. Hirsch; Adrian Egli

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.03.20187880 Date: 2020-09-05 Source: medRxiv

    in Lebanon using available data until August 25th, 2020 and forecasts the number of infections until the end of September using four different scenarios for mitigation measures reflected in the reproductive number TRANS Rt. Mitigation measures in Lebanon date back MESHD to early March soon after the first confirmed cases TRANS, and have been gradually lifted as of May. Thereafter, the country has witnessed a slow yet steady increase in the number of cases that has been significantly exacerbated after the explosion at Beirut harbor on August 4. Furthermore, we estimate the daily active cases in need of intensive care compared to the available number of beds and we assess accordingly that this capacity will be exhausted within a short span of time, unless severe measures are imposed.

    Assessment of COVID-19 Pandemic in Nepal: A Lockdown Scenario Analysis

    Authors: Kusum Sharma Parajuli; Amrit Banstola; Rishi Ram Parajuli; Sheyla Maria Lemos Lima; Margareth Crisóstomo Portela; Tamar Plitt; Joseph Eggers; Ilaria Mogno; Ana Gonzalez-Reiche; Sophia Siu; Michael Tankelevich; Lauren Grinspan; Rebekah E Dixon; Divya Jha; Gustavo Martinez-Delgado; Fatima Amanat; Daisy A Hoagland; Benjamin tenOever; Marla C Dubinsky; Miriam Merad; Harm van Bakel; Florian Krammer; Gerold Bongers; Saurabh Mehandru; Jeremiah J Faith

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.03.20187807 Date: 2020-09-05 Source: medRxiv

    The Government of Nepal issued a nationwide lockdown from 24 March to 21 July 2020, prohibiting domestic and international travels TRANS, border closures and closure of non-essential services. We collated the data provided by the Nepalese Ministry of Health and Population and assessed scenario of COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal during the lockdown period. There were only two confirmed cases TRANS from 610 Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) tests and no fatalities when the government introduced nationwide lockdown. Nepal had performed 7,791 RT-PCR tests for COVID-19, the highest number of tests during the lockdown. It has recorded its highest daily rise in coronavirus infections MESHD with a total of 740 new cases from the total of 4,483 RT-PCR tests performed on a single day. Nepal had reported total 17,994 positive cases and 40 deaths at the end of lockdown. The spatial distribution clearly shows that the cases were rapidly spreading from the southern part of the country where most points of entry and exit from India are located. The Government of Nepal needs to allocate more resources, increase its capacity to test and trace TRANS, establish dedicated isolation and quarantine facility and impose local restrictions to manage potential COVID-19 outbreak after easing lockdown.

    A New Screening Method for COVID-19 based on Ocular Feature Recognition by Machine Learning Tools MESHD

    Authors: Yanwei Fu; Feng Li; Wenxuan Wang; Haicheng Tang; Xuelin Qian; Mengwei Gu; Xiangyang Xue

    id:2009.03184v1 Date: 2020-09-04 Source: arXiv

    The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected several million people. With the outbreak of the epidemic, many researchers are devoting themselves to the COVID-19 screening system. The standard practices for rapid risk screening of COVID-19 are the CT imaging or RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction). However, these methods demand professional efforts of the acquisition of CT images and saliva samples, a certain amount of waiting time, and most importantly prohibitive examination fee in some countries. Recently, some literatures have shown that the COVID-19 patients usually accompanied by ocular manifestations consistent with the conjunctivitis HP conjunctivitis MESHD, including conjunctival hyperemia HP hyperemia MESHD, chemosis HP chemosis MESHD, epiphora HP, or increased secretions. After more than four months study, we found that the confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 present the consistent ocular pathological symbols; and we propose a new screening method of analyzing the eye-region images, captured by common CCD and CMOS cameras, could reliably make a rapid risk screening of COVID-19 with very high accuracy. We believe a system implementing such an algorithm should assist the triage management or the clinical diagnosis. To further evaluate our algorithm and approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai public health clinic center of Fudan University, we conduct a study of analyzing the eye-region images of 303 patients (104 COVID-19, 131 pulmonary, and 68 ocular patients), as well as 136 healthy people. Remarkably, our results of COVID-19 patients in testing set consistently present similar ocular pathological symbols; and very high testing results have been achieved in terms of sensitivity SERO and specificity. We hope this study can be inspiring and helpful for encouraging more researches in this topic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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