Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (554)

Disease (464)

Death (402)

Coronavirus Infections (276)

Pneumonia (109)


Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (113)

Fever (109)

Cough (88)

Fatigue (28)

Hypertension (20)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 631 - 640 records in total 1146
    records per page




    Epidemic analysis of COVID-19 Outbreak and Counter-Measures in France

    Authors: Eren Unlu; Hippolyte Leger; Oleksandr Motornyi; Alia Rukubayihunga; Thibaud Ishacian; Mehdi Chouiten

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.27.20079962 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 pandemic has triggered world-wide attention among data scientists and epidemiologists to analyze and predict the outcomes, by using previous statistical epidemic models. We propose to use a variant of the well known SEIR model to analyze the spread of COVID-19 in France, by taking in to account the national lockdown declared in March 11, 2020. Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) is used to find optimal parameters for the model in the case of France. We propose to fit the model based only on the number of daily fatalities, where an R2 score based error metric is used. As number of confirmed cases TRANS shall not be fully representative due to low testing especially in the first phases of the outbreak, we present that basing the model optimisation on the fatalities can provide legitimate results.

    COVID-19 in Iran, a comprehensive investigation from exposure to treatment outcomes

    Authors: Mohammad Ali Ashraf; Nasim Shokouhi; Elham Shirali; Fateme Davari-tanha; Omeed Memar; Alireza Kamalipour; Ayein Azarnoush; Avin Mabadi; Adele Ossareh; Milad Sanginabadi; Talat Mokhtari Azad; Leila Aghaghazvini; Sara Ghaderkhani; Tahereh Poordast; Alieh Pourdast; Pershang Nazemi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-26339/v1 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background There is a growing need for information regarding the recent coronavirus disease MESHD of 2019 (Covid-19). We present a comprehensive report of Covid-19 patients in Iran.Methods One hundred hospitalized patients with Covid-19 were studied. Data on potential source of exposure, demographic, clinical, and paraclinical features, therapy outcome, and post-discharge follow-up were analyzed.Results The median age TRANS of the patients was 58 years, and the majority of the patients (72.7%) were above 50 years of age TRANS. Fever MESHD Fever HP was present in 45.2% of the patients on admission. The most common clinical symptoms were shortness of breath (74%) and cough MESHD cough HP (68%). Most patients had elevated C-reactive protein (92.3%), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate HP (82.9%), lymphocytopenia (74.2 %) on admission. Lower lobes of the lung were most commonly involved, and ground-glass opacity (81.8%) was the most frequent finding in CT scans. The administration of hydroxychloroquine improved the clinical outcome of the patients. Lopinavir/ritonavir was efficacious at younger ages TRANS. Of the 70 discharged patients, 40% had symptom relapse, (8.6%) were readmitted to the hospital, and 3 patients (4.3%) died.Conclusions  This report demonstrates a heterogeneous nature of clinical manifestations in patients affected with Covid-19. The most common presenting symptoms are non-specific, so attention should be made on broader testing, especially in age groups TRANS with the greatest risk and younger individuals who can serve as carriers TRANS of the disease MESHD. Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir (in younger age group TRANS) can be potential treatment options. Finally, patients discharged from the hospital should be followed up because of potential symptom relapse.

    Fast SARS-CoV-2 detection protocol based on RNA precipitation and RT-qPCR in nasopharyngeal swab samples

    Authors: Xabier Guruceaga; Amanda Sierra; Daniel Marino; Izortze Santin; Jon Ander Nieto-Garai; Jose Ramon Bilbao; Maier Lorizate; Patricia Aspichueta; coBIG (COVID19 Basque Inter-institutional Group); Ugo Mayor

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20081307 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has evolved far more aggressively in countries lacking a robust testing strategy to identify infected individuals. Given the global demand for fast and reliable diagnosis to determine the carrier TRANS individuals, a stock-out scenario for a number of essential reagents/kits used along the diagnostic process has been foreseen by many organizations. Having identified the RNA extraction step as one of the key bottlenecks, we tested several alternatives that avoid the use of commercial kits for this step. The analysis showed that 2-propanol precipitation of the viral RNA, followed by one-step RT-qPCR results in a sensitivity SERO and specificity comparable to that provided currently by automatized systems such as the COBAS 6800 system. Therefore, this simple protocol allows SARS-CoV-2 testing independently of commercial kit providers in a time and cost-effective manner. It can be readily implemented in research and/or diagnostic laboratories worldwide, provided that patient confidentiality and researcher safety are ensured. Scaling up the testing capabilities of hospitals and research facilities will identify larger numbers of infected individuals to paint a clear picture of the COVID-19 prevalence SERO, a pre-requisite for informed policy decision making.

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 virus infection MESHD in Guilan province, Iran

    Authors: Maryam Shakiba; Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari; Fardin Mehrabian; Seyed Mahmoud Rezvani; Zahra Ghasempour; Abtin Heidarzadeh

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20079244 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The extent of infection MESHD by coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 has not been well documented. In this study we aimed to determine seropositivity of COVID-19 virus infection MESHD in population of a highly affected area in north of Iran. Methods: In a population-based cluster random sampling design through phone call invitation, a total of 196 household including 552 subjects agreed to participate in this study. Each participant were taken 50ml blood SERO sample at health care center. Rapid test SERO kits were used to detect antibody SERO against COVID-19. Crude, population-weight adjusted and test performance SERO adjusted prevalence SERO of antibody SERO seropositivity to SARS-CoV-2 were reported. Results: The prevalence SERO of antibody SERO seropositivity was 0.22 (95%CI: 0.19-0.26). The population weight adjusted estimate was 0.21 (95%CI: 0.14-0.29) and test performance SERO adjusted prevalence SERO was 0.33 (95%CI: 0.28-0.39). Based on these estimates the range of infected people in this province would be between 518000 and 777000. Conclusion: The population seropositivity prevalence SERO of COVID-19 virus infection MESHD indicated that the asymptomatic infection MESHD asymptomatic TRANS is much higher than the number of confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19. This estimate can be used to better detect infection MESHD fatality rate and decide for public policy guidelines.

    Estimates of the ongoing need for social distancing and control measures post-"lockdown" from trajectories of COVID-19 cases and mortality.

    Authors: Mike Lonergan; James Chalmers

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20080994 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    By 29th April 2020, COVID-19 had caused more than 3 million cases across more than 200 countries. And most countries with significant outbreaks had introduced social distancing or "lockdown" measures to reduce viral transmission TRANS. So the key question now is when, how, and to what extent, these measures can be lifted. By fitting regression models to publically available data on daily numbers of newly- confirmed cases TRANS and mortality, trajectories, doubling times and reproduction number TRANS ( R0 TRANS) were estimated both before and under the control measures. These data ran up to 29th April 2020, and covered 73 countries that had provided sufficient data for modelling. The estimates of R0 TRANS, before lockdown, based on these data were broadly consistent with those previously published at between 2.0 and 3.7 in the countries with the largest number of cases available for analysis (USA, Italy, Spain, France and UK). There was little evidence to suggest that the restrictions had reduced R far below 1 in many places, with France having the most rapid reductions - R0 TRANS 0.77 (95%CI 0.68-0.87), based on cases and 0.78 (95%CI 0.68-0.88) based on mortality. Intermittent lockdown has been proposed as a means of controlling the outbreak while allowing periods of increase freedom and economic activity. These data suggest that few countries could have even one week per month unrestricted without seeing resurgence of the epidemic. Similarly, restoring 20% of the activity that has been prevented by the lockdowns looks difficult to reconcile with preventing the resurgence of the disease MESHD in most countries.

    COVID-19 severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in Mexico City - First experience in a Mexican hospital

    Authors: Benjamin Valente-Acosta; Irma Hoyo-Ulloa; Luis Espinosa-Aguilar; Raquel Mendoza-Aguilar; Javier Garcia-Guerrero; Diego Ontanon-Zurita; Brenda Gomez-Gomez; Omar Fueyo-Rodriguez; Juan Mauricio Vera-Zertuche; Rodolfo Anzola-Arias; Jose Victor Jimenez-Ceja; Daniela Horta-Capinteyro; Claudia Olvera-Guzman; Janet Aguirre-Sanchez; Juvenal Franco-Granillo; Laura Jauregui-Camargo; Eduardo Sada-Diaz; Rafael Saavedra-Perez-Salas; Andres Palomar-Lever; Francisco Moreno-Sanchez

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20080796 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic since its first confirmed case TRANS, has changed the world. The need for accurate and truthful information is vital. Mexico and Latin America have been widely affected, so having local epidemiological data, will be of great clinical utility. Methods: A total of 33 hospitalized patients with Covid-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (either severe or critical) were identified from electronic health record in a third level care private hospital in Mexico City from March 13rd to April 13rd, 2020. We conducted a descriptive study of patients for characterization of the clinical, laboratory and radiologic findings, as well as complications. Results: The mean age TRANS was 60.6 (12.68) years and 23 (69.7%) were males TRANS. Twenty-three patients (69.6%) were overweight MESHD overweight HP or obese. The median duration of symptoms before admission was 7 days. All the patients required mechanical invasive ventilation. The median duration of the mechanical ventilation was 12(2.6) days and all patients were extubated except one. All patients were started on antiviral treatment in the first 24 hours after admission once the diagnosis of Covid19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP was made. There was no difference between the treatment option and the length of stay. The extubation rate was higher (91.6%) than in other series, with no fatalities even though they were treated with different regimens. Conclusions: This one-centre experience describes the epidemiology, treatment and outcome of 33 patients with severe or critical COVID pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP admitted to the ICU. Most patients in our series were overweight MESHD overweight HP or obese male TRANS, which we observed were of higher risk to present critical pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, as well as high levels of Interleukin-6. The foregoing is relevant, due to the high incidence of these comorbidities in our country.

    Development and validation of an automated radiomic CT signature for detecting COVID-19

    Authors: Julien Guiot; Akshayaa Vaidyanathan; Louis Deprez; Fadila Zerka; Denis Danthine; Anne-Noelle Frix; Marie Thys; Monique Henket; Gregory Canivet; Stephane Mathieu; Eva Eftaxia; Philippe Lambin; Nathan Tsoutzidis; Benjamin Miraglio; Sean Walsh; Michel Moutschen; Renaud Louis; Paul Meunier; Wim Vos; Ralph Leijenaar; Pierre Lovinfosse

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.28.20082966 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background : The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has reached pandemic status. Drastic measures of social distancing are enforced in society and healthcare systems are being pushed to and over their limits. Objectives : To develop a fully automatic framework to detect COVID-19 by applying AI to chest CT and evaluate validation performance SERO. Methods : In this retrospective multi-site study, a fully automated AI framework was developed to extract radiomics features from volumetric chest CT exams to learn the detection pattern of COVID-19 patients. We analysed the data from 181 RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients as well as 1200 other non-COVID-19 control patients to build and assess the performance SERO of the model. The datasets were collected from 2 different hospital sites of the CHU Liege, Belgium. Diagnostic performance SERO was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity SERO and specificity. Results : 1381 patients were included in this study. The average age TRANS was 64.4 and 63.8 years with a gender TRANS balance of 56% and 52% male TRANS in the COVID-19 and control group, respectively. The final curated dataset used for model construction and validation consisted of chest CT scans of 892 patients. The model sensitivity SERO and specificity for detecting COVID-19 in the test set (training 80% and test 20% of patients) were 78.94% and 91.09%, respectively, with an AUC of 0.9398 (95% CI: 0.875-1). The negative predictive value SERO of the algorithm was found to be larger than 97%. Conclusions : Benchmarked against RT-PCR confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19, our AI framework can accurately differentiate COVID-19 from routine clinical conditions in a fully automated fashion. Thus, providing rapid accurate diagnosis in patients suspected of COVID-19 infection MESHD, facilitating the timely implementation of isolation procedures and early intervention.

    Fitting SIR model to COVID-19 pandemic data and comparative forecasting with machine learning

    Authors: Mouhamadou Aliou Mountaga Tall Baldé

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20081042 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    In this work, we use a classical SIR model to study COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to deal with the SIR model fitting to COVID-19 data by using different technics and tools. We particularly use two ways: the first one start by fitting the total number of the confirmed cases TRANS and the second use a parametric solver tool. Finally a comparative forecasting, machine learning tools, is given.

    Spatial-temporal variations of atmospheric factors contribute to SARS-CoV-2 outbreak

    Authors: Raffaele Fronza; Marina Lusic; Manfred Schmidt; Bojana Lucic

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20080846 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD causing coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) reached over two million confirmed cases TRANS worldwide, and numbers are still growing at a fast rate. The majority of new infections MESHD are now being reported outside of China, where the outbreak officially originated in December 2019 in Wuhan. Despite the wide outbreak of the infection MESHD, a remarkable asymmetry is observed in the number of cases and in the distribution of the severity of the COVID-19 symptoms in patients with respect to the countries/regions. In the early stages of a new pathogen outbreak, it is critical to understand the dynamics of the infection MESHD transmission TRANS, in order to follow contagion over time and project the epidemiological situation in the near future. While it is possible to reason that observed variation in the number and severity of cases stem from the initial number of infected individuals, the difference in the testing policies and social aspects of community transmissions TRANS, the factors that could explain high discrepancy in areas with a similar level of healthcare still remain unknown. Here we introduce a binary classifier based on an artificial neural network that can help in explaining those differences and that can be used to support the design of containment policies. We propose that air pollutants, and specifically particulate matter (PM) 2.5 and ozone, are oppositely related with the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD frequency and could serve as surrogate markers to complement the infection MESHD outbreak anticipation.

    Early analysis of the Australian COVID-19 epidemic

    Authors: David J Price; Freya M Shearer; Michael T Meehan; Emma McBryde; Robert Moss; Nick Golding; Eamon J Conway; Peter Dawson; Deborah Cromer; James Wood; Sam Abbott; Jodie McVernon; James M McCaw

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.25.20080127 Date: 2020-04-30 Source: medRxiv

    As of 18 April 2020, there had been 6,533 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 in Australia. Of these, 67 had died from the disease MESHD. The daily count of new confirmed cases TRANS was declining. This suggests that the collective actions of the Australian public and government authorities in response to COVID-19 were sufficiently early and assiduous to avert a public health crisis - for now. Analysing factors, such as the intensity and timing public health interventions, that contribute to individual country experiences of COVID-19 will assist in the next stage of response planning globally. Using data from the Australian national COVID-19 database, we describe how the epidemic and public health response unfolded in Australia up to 13 April 2020. We estimate that the effective reproduction number TRANS was likely below 1 (the threshold value for control) in each Australian state since mid-March and forecast that hospital ward and intensive care unit occupancy will remain below capacity thresholds over the next two weeks.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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