Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Disease (511)

Infections (485)

Coronavirus Infections (338)

Death (287)

Fever (208)

Human Phenotype

Fever (207)

Cough (168)

Hypertension (161)

Pneumonia (159)

Anxiety (101)


gender (1266)

age categories (970)

Transmission (155)

fomite (111)

contact tracing (92)

    displaying 21 - 30 records in total 1269
    records per page

    Outcome of Conservative Therapy in COVID-19 Patients Presenting with Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Authors: DM Shalimar; Manas Vaishnav; Anshuman Elhence; Ramesh Kumar; Srikant Mohta; Chandan Palle; Peeyush Kumar; Mukesh Ranjan; Tanmay Vajpai; Shubham Prasad; Jatin Yegurla; Anugrah Dhooria; Vikas Banyal; Samagra Agarwal; Rajat Bansal; Sulagna Bhattacharjee; Richa Aggarwal; Kapil D Soni; Swetha Rudravaram; Ashutosh K Singh; Irfan Altaf; Avinash Choudekar; Soumya J Mahapatra; Deepak Gunjan; Saurabh Kedia; Govind Makharia; Anjan Trikha; Pramod Garg; Anoop Saraya

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169813 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: There is a paucity of data on the management of gastrointestinal(GI) bleeding in patients with COVID-19 amid concerns about the risk of transmission TRANS during endoscopic procedures.We aimed to study the outcomes of conservative treatment for GI bleeding in patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective analysis, 24 of 1342(1.8%) patients with COVID-19, presenting with GI bleeding from 22ndApril to 22ndJuly 2020, were included. Results: The mean age TRANS of patients was 45.8+/-12.7 years; 17(70.8%) were males TRANS; upper GI(UGI) bleeding: lower GI(LGI) 23:1. Twenty-two(91.6%) patients had evidence of cirrhosis HP- 21 presented with UGI bleeding while one had bleeding from hemorrhoids MESHD hemorrhoids HP. Two patients without cirrhosis HP were presumed to have non-variceal bleeding. The medical therapy for UGI bleeding included vasoconstrictors- somatostatin in 17(73.9%) and terlipressin in 4(17.4%) patients. All patients with UGI bleeding received proton pump inhibitors and antibiotics. Packed red blood SERO cells(PRBCs), fresh frozen plasma SERO and platelets were transfused in 14(60.9%), 3(13.0%) and 3(13.0%), respectively. The median PRBCs transfused was 1(0-3) unit(s). The initial control of UGI bleeding was achieved in all 23 patients and none required an emergency MESHD endoscopy. At 5-day follow-up, none rebled or died. Two patients later rebled, one had intermittent bleed due to gastric antral vascular ectasia MESHD, while another had rebleed 19 days after discharge. Three(12.5%) cirrhosis HP patients succumbed to acute hypoxemic respiratory failure HP during hospital stay. Conclusion: Conservative management strategies including pharmacotherapy, restrictive transfusion strategy, and close hemodynamic monitoring can successfully manage GI bleeding in COVID-19 patients and reduce need for urgent endoscopy.

    Blood SERO biomarkers for assessing headaches MESHD headaches HP in healthcare workers after wearing biological personal protective equipment in a COVID-19 field-hospital

    Authors: Francisco Martín-Rodríguez; Raquel M. Portillo Rubiales; Laura N. Fadrique Millán; Virginia Carbajosa Rodríguez; Ancor Sanz-García; Gabino Mozo Herrera; Guillermo J. Ortega; Esther Durá Ballester; Miguel Ángel Castro Villamor; Raúl López Izquierdo

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    The consequences of wearing biosafety equipment by healthcare professionals during their work and the prediction of such consequences need to be assessed. To analyze the role played by different blood SERO biomarkers in predicting the appearance of headaches MESHD headaches HP in healthcare workers wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) in a COVID-19 treatment unit, a Prospective cohort study of 38 healthcare workers from a convalescence MESHD unit of patients with COVID-19 in a field hospital was performed during April 2020. Blood SERO analysis was carried out before the start of the 4 hours shift of the volunteers equipped with PPE. After decontamination, there were asked if they had suffered from headache MESHD headache HP, obtaining the binary outcome. This study included 38 participants with a median age TRANS of 29 years (25th-75th percentile: 26-44 years old), 73.7% female TRANS (28 cases). 44.7% (17 cases) had a headache MESHD headache HP after wearing PPE for 4 hours. The baseline creatinine value reflected a specific odds ratio in the regression model of 241.36 (95% CI: 2.50-23,295.43; p=0.019), and an AUC of 0.737 (95%CI: 0.57-0.90; p<0.01). Blood SERO creatinine is a good candidate for predicting the appearance of a de novo headache MESHD headache HP in healthcare workers after wearing PPE for 4 hours in a COVID – 19 unit.

    Insights into the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: Lessons learned from a high-risk country

    Authors: Md. Hasanul Banna Siam; Md Mahbub Hasan; Enayetur Raheem; Md. Hasinur rahaman Khan; Mahbubul H Siddiqee; Mohammad Sorowar Hossain

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168674 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background South Asian countries including Bangladesh have been struggling to control the COVID-19 pandemic despite imposing months of lockdown and other public health measures (as of June 30, 2020). In-depth epidemiological information from these countries is lacking. From the perspective of Bangladesh, this study aims to understand the epidemiological features and gaps in public health preparedness. Method This study used publicly available data (8 March-30 June 2020) from the respective health departments of Bangladesh and Johns Hopkins University Coronavirus Resource Centre. Descriptive statistics was used to report the incidence, case fatality rates (CFR), and trend analysis. Spatial distribution maps were created using ArcGIS Desktop. Infection MESHD dynamics were analyzed via SIR models. Findings In 66 days of nationwide lockdown and other public health efforts, a total of 47,153 cases and 650 deaths MESHD were reported. However, the incidence was increased by around 50% within a week after relaxing the lockdown. Males TRANS were disproportionately affected in terms of infections MESHD (71%) and deaths MESHD (77%) than females TRANS. The CFR for males TRANS was higher than females TRANS (1.38% vs 1.01%). Over 50% of infected cases were reported among young adults TRANS (20-40-year age group TRANS). Geospatial analysis between 7 June 2020 and 20 June 2020 showed that the incidences increased 4 to 10-fold in 12 administrative districts while it decreased in the epicenter. As compared to the EU and USA, trends of the cumulative incidence were slower in South Asia with lower mortality. Conclusion Our findings on gaps in public health preparedness and epidemiological characteristics would contribute to facilitating better public health decisions for managing current and future pandemics like COVID-19 in the settings of developing countries.

    COVID-19: Beliefs in misinformation in the Australian community

    Authors: Kristen Pickles; Erin Cvejic; Brooke Nickel; Tessa Copp; Carissa Bonner; Julie Leask; Julie Ayre; Carys Batcup; Samuel Cornell; Thomas Dakin; Rachael Dodd; Jennifer MJ Isautier; Kirsten J McCaffery

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168583 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To investigate prevalence SERO of beliefs in COVID-19 misinformation and examine whether demographic, psychosocial and cognitive factors are associated with these beliefs, and how they change over time. Study design: Prospective national longitudinal community online survey. Setting: Australian general public. Participants: Adults TRANS aged TRANS over 18 years (n=4362 baseline/Wave 1; n=1882 Wave 2; n=1369 Wave 3). Main outcome measure: COVID-19 misinformation beliefs. Results: Stronger agreement with misinformation beliefs was significantly associated with younger age TRANS, male TRANS gender TRANS, lower education, and primarily speaking a language other than English at home (all p<0.01). After controlling for these variables, misinformation beliefs were significantly associated (p<0.001) with lower digital health literacy, lower perceived threat of COVID-19, lower confidence in government, and lower trust in scientific institutions. The belief that the threat of COVID-19 is greatly exaggerated increased between Wave 1-2 (p=0.002), while belief that herd immunity benefits were being covered up decreased (p<0.001). Greatest support from a list of Australian Government identified myths was for those regarding hot temperatures killing the virus (22%) and Ibuprofen exacerbates COVID-19 (13%). Lower institutional trust and greater rejection of official government accounts were associated with greater support for COVID-19 myths after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Conclusion: These findings highlight important gaps in communication effectiveness. Stronger endorsement of misinformation was associated with male TRANS gender TRANS, younger age TRANS, lower education and language other than English spoken at home. Misinformation can undermine public health efforts. Public health authorities must urgently target groups identified in this study when countering misinformation and seek ways to enhance public trust of experts, governments, and institutions.

    Embracing Blended Learning Approach for Professional Growth of in-service School Teachers Post Pandemic of COVID-19

    Authors: Dr. Rabiya Saboowala; Dr. Pooja Manghirmalani-Mishra

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    The impact of the pandemic has been felt through all sectors of the global society including the field of education. The pandemic is a strong indication of the fact that things will not be the same as they were before. Similarly, the educational institutes that were working regularly would also undergo a change in the methodologies that they will adopt post-pandemic. Many research scholars and educationalists believe that a blended learning approach will become a reality as a dominant pedagogy for the teaching-learning process. The current situation demands a proactive strategy where not only students but teachers are also considered as learners while talking about their professional growth through seminars, conferences and refresher courses. The present study lays emphasis on embracing the blended learning approach in professional development training courses for school teachers which will provide an opportunity to inculcate educational programs across disciplines in Indian as well as global communities. The study consists of 169 in-service school teachers from India. Simple random technique of sampling was use to collect data. The attitude of school teachers towards blended learning and its six dimensions viz. learning flexibility, online learning, study management, technology, classroom learning and online interaction was studied. Also, the effect of gender TRANS and location of educational institutes where they teach was considered. Analysis for the testing research hypothesis was done using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS-26). The results indicated that both male TRANS and female TRANS teachers have similar attitudes towards blended learning but their attitudes varied while considering the six dimensions. Also, it was found that school teachers teaching in urban areas had a more positive attitude towards blended learning and its dimensions as compared to those teaching in rural areas. Implementation of blended learning for professional growth of school teachers post pandemic will push the boundaries of learning by creating opportunities for collaboration of various educational societies throughout the globe, enhance constructivist learning and also help in following social norms set to fight against COVID-19.

    Readiness of in-service Teachers Towards Blended Learning Approach as a Learning Pedagogy Post COVID-19 Era

    Authors: Dr. Rabiya Saboowala; Dr. Pooja Manghirmalani-Mishra

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    The impact of COVID-19 pandemic has traumatized the entire world. All educational institutions have been declared closed by most of the countries throughout the globe, as a consequence of which, learners inclusive of teachers have undergone tremendous loss. Nevertheless, COVID-19 has prompted experts to rethink about the suitable pedagogies of teaching-learning that will prove to be sustainable with the global health crises going on. Blended learning is one of the models proposed by various educationalists and research scholars that appears to be a viable and best fit solution for educational institutes for at least a period of a few months post-pandemic. The approach aims to provide meaningful opportunities for teachers to embed the use of technology for the teaching -learning process. During this time, teachers from various types of educational institutions are also getting an opportunity of being learners. This role is fulfilled by their outstanding participation in various seminars (commonly called as webinars), workshops, faculty development programs, etc which are exclusively conducted for them in order to enhance their learning experiences during this time. This study investigates the readiness of in-service teachers considering them as learners towards blended learning and its six dimensions viz. learning flexibility, online learning, study management, technology, classroom learning and online interaction. The study also sought to find out the readiness of in-service teachers towards blended learning when related to gender TRANS and whether they have attended/conducted webinars/lectures/Faculty Development Programs online. Total respondents consisted of 313 teachers from India that were selected by simple random technique of sampling. Analysis for testing research hypotheses consisted of descriptive analysis, t-test and Pearson Correlation Coefficient (correlation matrix) using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS-26). The results indicated that there existed a correlation among six dimensions of blended learning while considering the readiness of in-service teachers towards blended learning. Also, the results indicated that both male TRANS and female TRANS teachers and teachers who have and have not attended /conducted webinars/ lectures/ Faculty Development Programs online have had no difference in their readiness towards blended learning.

    Impact of COVID-19 on the Psychological Well-Being and Turnover Intentions of Frontline Nurses in the Community: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Philippines

    Authors: Janet Alexis A. De los Santos; Leodoro J. Labrague

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20167411 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess fear of COVID-19 among nurses in a community setting. Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design using self-report questionnaires. Findings: Results revealed that nurses display moderate to high fear of COVID-19 and that the female TRANS gender TRANS is correlated to fear of the virus. Moreover, the nurses fear influences their psychological distress and organizational and professional turnover intentions. Conclusion: Fear of COVID-19 is universal among nurses. There is a need to assess the factors associated with the fear to better address the nurses psychological well-being and to avoid turnover intentions.

    Safety of hot and cold site admissions within a high volume urology department in the United Kingdom at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Luke Stroman; Beth Russell; Pinky Kotecha; Anastasia Kantarzi; Luis Ribeiro; Bethany Jackson; Vugar Ismaylov; Adeoye Oluwakanyinsola Debo-Aina; Findlay MacAskill; Francesca Kum; Meghana Kulkarni; Raveen Sandher; Anna Walsh; Ella Doerge; Katherine Guest; Yamini Kailash; Nick Simson; Cassandra R McDonald; Elsie Mensah; Li June Tay; Ramandeep Chalokia; Sharon Clovis; Elizabeth Eversden; Jane Cossins; Jonah Rusere; Grace Zisengwe; Louisa Fleure; Leslie Cooper; Kathryn Chatterton; Amelia Barber; Catherine Roberts; Thomasia Azavedo; Jeffrey Ritualo; Harold Omana; Liza Mills; Lily Studd; Oussama El Hage; Rajesh Nair; Sachin Malde; Arun Sahai; Archana Fernando; Claire Taylor; Ben Challacombe; Ramesh Thurairaja; Rick Popert; Jonathon Olsburgh; Paul Cathcart; Christian Brown; Marios Hadjipavlou; Ella Di Benedetto; Matthew Bultitude; Jonathon Glass; Tet Yap; Rhana Zakri; Majed Shabbir; Susan Willis; Kay Thomas; Tim O'Brien; Muhammad Shamim Khan; Prokar Dasgupta

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20154203 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Contracting COVID-19 peri-operatively has been associated with a mortality rate as high as 23%. Using hot and cold sites has led to a low rate of post-operative diagnosis of COVID-19 infection MESHD and allowed safe continuation of important emergency MESHD and cancer operations in our centre. Objective: The primary objective was to determine the safety of the continuation of surgical admissions and procedures during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic using hot and cold surgical sites. The secondary objective is to determine risk factors of contracting COVID-19 to help guide further prevention. Setting: A single surgical department at a tertiary care referral centre in London, United Kingdom. Participants: All consecutive patients admitted under the care of the urology team over a 3-month period from 1st March to 31st May 2020 over both hot acute admission sites and cold elective sites were included. Exposures: COVID-19 was prevalent in the community over the three months of the study at the height of the pandemic. The majority of elective surgery was carried out in a cold site requiring patients to have a negative COVID-19 swab 72 hours prior to admission and to self-isolate for 14 days pre-operatively, whilst all acute admissions were admitted to the hot site. Main outcomes and measures: COVID-19 was detected in 1.6% of post-operative patients. There was 1 (0.2%) post-operative mortality due to COVID-19. Results: A total of 611 patients, 451 (73.8%) male TRANS and 160 (26.2%) female TRANS, with a median age TRANS of 57 (interquartile range 44-70) were admitted under the surgical team. Of these, 101 (16.5%) were admitted on the cold site and 510 (83.5%) on the hot site. Surgical procedures were performed in 495 patients of which 8 (1.6%) contracted COVID-19 post-operatively with 1 (0.2%) post-operative mortality due to COVID-19. Overall, COVID-19 was detected in 20 (3.3%) patients with 2 (0.3%) deaths MESHD. On multivariate analysis, length of stay was associated with contracting COVID-19 in our cohort (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.13-1.39). Conclusions and Relevance: Continuation of surgical procedures using hot and cold sites throughout the COVID-19 pandemic was safe practice, although the risk of COVID-19 remained and is underlined by a post-operative mortality. Reducing length of stay may be able to reduce contraction of COVID-19.

    Health systems trust in the time of Covid-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: A qualitative exploration

    Authors: Taufique Joarder; Muhammad Nahian Bin Khaled; Shahaduz Zaman

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20157768 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Lack of trust hinders care seeking, and limits community support for contact tracing TRANS, care seeking, information and communication uptake, multisectoral or multi-stakeholder engagement, and community participation. We aimed at exploring how trust might be breached and what implications this may have in COVID-19 pandemic response by the Bangladesh health systems. Methods: We conducted this qualitative research during the pandemic, through seven online focus group discussions, with purposively selected mixed- gender TRANS groups of clinicians and non-clinicians (n=50). Data were analyzed through conventional content analysis method. Results: The common thread throughout the findings was the pervasive mistrust of the people in Bangladeshi health systems in its management of COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to the existing health systems weaknesses, few others became evident throughout the progression of the pandemic, namely, the lack of coordination challenges during the preparatory phase as well as the advanced stages of the pandemic. This; compounded by the health systems and political leadership failures, lead to opportunistic corruption and lack of regulations; leading to low quality, discriminatory, or no service at all. These have trust implications, manifested in health seeking from unqualified providers, non-adherence to health advice, tension between the service seekers and providers, disapproval of the governance mechanism, misuse of already scarce resources, disinterest in community participation, and eventually loss of life and economy. Conclusions: Health sector stewards should learn the lessons from other countries, ensure multisectoral engagement involving the community and political forces, and empower the public health experts to organize and consolidate a concerted health systems effort in gaining trust in the short run, and building a resilient and responsive health system in the long.

    Social Behaviors Associated with a Positive COVID-19 Test Result

    Authors: Sidra Speaker; Christine Marie Doherty; Elizabeth R Pfoh; Aaron Dunn; Bryan Hair; Victoria Shaker; Lynn Daboul; Michael B Rothberg

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168450 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To compare behaviors of individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 relative to non-infected individuals. Methods: We sent COVID positive cases and age TRANS/ gender TRANS matched controls a survey regarding their social behaviors via MyChart (online patient portal). We called cases if they did not complete the electronic survey within two days. Data was collected from May-June 2020. Survey responses for cases without a close contact TRANS and controls were compared using Pearson chi-square or Fishers Exact tests as appropriate. Results: A total of 339 participants completed the survey (113 cases, 226 controls); 45 (40%) cases had known contact with COVID-19. Cases were more likely to have recently traveled TRANS (4% vs. 0%, p=0.01) or to work outside the home (40% vs. 25%, p=0.02). There was no difference in the rates of attending private or public gatherings, mask/glove use, hand-washing, cleaning surfaces and cleaning mail/groceries between cases and controls. Conclusions: Sixty percent of cases had no known contact with COVID-19, indicating ongoing community transmission TRANS and underlining the importance of contact tracing TRANS. The greater percentage of cases who work outside the home provides further evidence for social distancing.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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