Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Disease (504)

Infections (482)

Coronavirus Infections (335)

Death (285)

Fever (207)

Human Phenotype

Fever (206)

Cough (168)

Hypertension (161)

Pneumonia (156)

Anxiety (101)


gender (1247)

age categories (957)

Transmission (153)

fomite (109)

contact tracing (89)

    displaying 41 - 50 records in total 1250
    records per page

    COVID-19: Knowledge, Perceptions and Attitudes of Residents in the Northern Region of Ghana, West Africa

    Authors: Courage Kosi Setsoafia Saba; Joseph Nzeh; Francis Addy; Akosua Bonsu Karikari

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0060.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source:

    Africa is gradually becoming an epicentre for the COVID-19 pandemic. From the current trends of the disease MESHD, Africa might be the last hardest hit continent. While scientific investigations are ongoing to develop effective management through medications and vaccines, existing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes could be harnessed to develop an effective strategy to curb community transmission TRANS of the COVID-19. The present study assessed the awareness level, perceptions and attitudes of people living in rural, peri-urban and urban communities in Northern Ghana and their preparedness for the prevention and containment of COVID-19. We conducted a face-to-face interview and administered 553 semi-structured questionnaires in eighteen (18) rural and peri-urban/urban communities under Tolon District, Kumbungu Districts, Sagnarigu Municipality, Savelugu Municipality and Tamale Metropolis from 23rd of April to 8th of June 2020. The percentage of male TRANS to female TRANS among the respondents was 56.8% and 43.2%, respectively. Nearly half (41%) of the respondents had no formal education and 91.3% of them were Muslims. Most of the respondents (85%) held the view that COVID-19 is a punishment from God. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the time rural and peri-urban/urban communities first heard of COVID-19. Majority (63%) of the rural respondents depended on radio, while the peri-urban/urban respondents (51%) relied on television for information on COVID-19. All respondents were aware of COVID-19 and 91.7% could mention at least two symptoms of the disease MESHD but 18% believed there was no COVID-19 in Ghana. Most of the respondents (69.6%) believed they will not contract the virus. Our findings may provide useful data to government and other stakeholders in the COVID-19 fight.

    Impact of tocilizumab administration on mortality in severe COVID-19

    Authors: Andrew Tsai; Oumou Diawara; Ronald G Nahass; Luigi Brunetti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20114959 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic has placed a significant burden on hospitals and healthcare providers. The immune response to this disease MESHD is thought to lead to a cytokine storm, which contributes to the severity of illness. There is an urgent need to confirm whether the use of tocilizumab provides a benefit in individuals with COVID-19. Methods A single-center propensity-score matched cohort study, including all consecutive COVID-19 patients, admitted to the medical center who were either discharged from the medical center or expired between March 1, 2020, and May 5, 2020, was performed. Patients were stratified according to the receipt of tocilizumab for cytokine storm and matched to controls using propensity scores. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 132 patients were included in the matched dataset (tocilizumab=66; standard of care=66). Approximately 73% of the patients were male TRANS. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP (55%), diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (31%), and chronic pulmonary disease MESHD (15%) were the most common comorbidities present. There were 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the tocilizumab group and 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the standard of care group (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.465 - 2.151; p=1.00). Advanced age TRANS, history of myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP, dementia MESHD dementia HP, chronic pulmonary disease, heart MESHD failure, and malignancy were significantly more common in patients who died. Interpretation The current analysis does not support the use of tocilizumab for the management of cytokine storm in patients with COVID-19. Use of this therapeutic agent should be limited to the context of a clinical trial until more evidence is available.

    Microbial contamination of powered air purifying respirators (PAPR) used during the COVID-19 pandemic: an in situ microbiological study

    Authors: Abhijoy Chakladar; Claire Gabrielle Jones; Jimmy Siu; Mohammed Osman Hassan-Ibrahim; Mansoor Khan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165423 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether internal components of powered air purifying respirators (PAPR) used during the Corona virus 2019 disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic are contaminated with bacteria, fungi and/or any viral material. DESIGN In situ microbiological study. SETTING Single NHS Trust, UK. OUTCOME MEASURES Growth of any bacteria or fungi, or positive polymerase chain reaction results for common respiratory viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RESULTS 25 PAPR hoods were swabbed; ten (40%) returned positive results. Bacterial growth was detected on six hoods (bacillus simplex, kocuria rhizophilia, bacillus weihenstephensis, microcccus luteus and staphylococcus epidermidis); five of the hoods were positive for fungal growth (non-sporulating environmental mould, NSEM); all sampled hoods tested negative for both SARS-CoV-2 and an expanded panel of respiratory viruses. There was wide variation in the storage of cleaned hoods. CONCLUSION Despite following recommended cleaning procedures, bacteria and fungi can remain on the internal components of PAPR hoods, at levels significant enough to be swabbed and cultured. PAPR hoods have the potential to cross-infect wearers and patients and are used primarily by clinicians who fail to fit disposable FFP3 respirators; the female TRANS sex and non-Caucasian people are less likely to fit FFP3 respirators. The hoods tested cannot be adequately cleaned for use in high risk healthcare environments, PAPR hoods and tubes can act as fomites, and there are evident shortcomings in their provision.

    Sex-specificity of mortality risk factors among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in New York City: prospective cohort study

    Authors: Tomi Jun; Sharon Nirenberg; Patricia Kovatch; Kuan-lin Huang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164640 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To identify sex-specific effects of risk factors for in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients admitted to a hospital system in New York City. Design: Prospective observational cohort study with in-hospital mortality as the primary outcome. Setting: Five acute care hospitals within a single academic medical system in New York City. Participants: 3,086 hospital inpatients with COVID-19 admitted on or before April 13, 2020 and followed through June 2, 2020. Follow-up till discharge or death MESHD was complete for 99.3% of the cohort. Results: The majority of the cohort was male TRANS (59.6%). Men were younger (median 64 vs. 70, p<0.001) and less likely to have comorbidities such as hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (32.5% vs. 39.9%, p<0.001), diabetes (22.6% vs. 26%, p=0.03), and obesity MESHD obesity HP (6.9% vs. 9.8%, p=0.004) compared to women. Women had lower median values of laboratory markers associated with inflammation MESHD compared to men: white blood SERO cells (5.95 vs. 6.8 K/uL, p<0.001), procalcitonin (0.14 vs 0.21 ng/mL, p<0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (375 vs. 428 U/L, p<0.001), C-reactive protein (87.7 vs. 123.2 mg/L, p<0.001). Unadjusted mortality was similar between men and women (28.8% vs. 28.5%, p=0.84), but more men required intensive care than women (25.2% vs. 19%, p<0.001). Male TRANS sex was an independent risk factor for mortality (OR 1.26, 95% 1.04-1.51) after adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, and baseline hypoxia MESHD. There were significant interactions between sex and coronary artery disease MESHD (p=0.038), obesity MESHD obesity HP (p=0.01), baseline hypoxia MESHD (p<0.001), ferritin (p=0.002), lactate dehydrogenase (p=0.003), and procalcitonin (p=0.03). Except for procalcitonin, which had the opposite association, each of these factors was associated with disproportionately higher mortality among women. Conclusions: Male TRANS sex was an independent predictor of mortality, consistent with prior studies. Notably, there were significant sex-specific interactions which indicated a disproportionate increase in mortality among women with coronary artery disease MESHD, obesity MESHD obesity HP, and hypoxia MESHD. These new findings highlight patient subgroups for further study and help explain the recognized sex differences in COVID-19 outcomes.

    Estrogen and COVID-19 symptoms: associations in women from the COVID Symptom Study

    Authors: Ricardo Costeira; Karla A Lee; Benjamin Murray; Colette Christiansen; Juan Castillo-Fernandez; Mary Ni Lochlainn; Joan Capdevila Pujol; Iain Buchan; Louise C Kenny; Jonathan Wolf; Sebastien Ourselin; Claire Steves; Timothy Spector; Louise Newson; Jordana Bell

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164921 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Men and older women have been shown to be at higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Animal model studies of SARS-CoV and MERS suggest that the age TRANS and sex difference in COVID-19 symptom severity may be due to a protective effect of the female TRANS sex hormone estrogen. Females TRANS have shown an ability to mount a stronger immune response to a variety of viral infections MESHD because of more robust humoral and cellular immune responses. Objectives: We sought to determine whether COVID-19 positivity increases in women entering menopause. We also aimed to identify whether premenopausal women taking exogenous hormones in the form of the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) and post-menopausal women taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have lower predicted rates of COVID-19, using our published symptom-based model. Design: The COVID Symptom Study developed by Kings College London and Zoe Global Limited was launched in the UK on 24th March 2020. It captured self-reported information related to COVID-19 symptoms. Data used for this study included records collected between 7th May - 15th June 2020. Main outcome measures: We investigated links between COVID-19 rates and 1) menopausal status, 2) COCP use and 3) HRT use, using symptom-based predicted COVID-19, tested COVID-19, and disease MESHD severity based on requirement for hospital attendance or respiratory support. Participants: Female TRANS users of the COVID Symptom Tracker Application in the UK, including 152,637 women for menopause status, 295,689 for COCP use, and 151,193 for HRT use. Analyses were adjusted for age TRANS, smoking and BMI. Results: Post-menopausal women aged TRANS 40-60 years had a higher rate of predicted COVID (P=0.003) and a corresponding range of symptoms, with consistent, but not significant trends observed for tested COVID-19 and disease MESHD severity. Women aged TRANS 18-45 years taking COCP had a significantly lower predicted COVID-19 (P=8.03E-05), with a reduction in hospital attendance (P=0.023). Post-menopausal women using HRT or hormonal therapies did not exhibit consistent associations, including increased rates of predicted COVID-19 (P=2.22E-05) for HRT users alone. Conclusions: Our findings support a protective effect of estrogen on COVID-19, based on positive association between predicted COVID-19 and menopausal status, and a negative association with COCP use. HRT use was positively associated with COVID-19 symptoms; however, the results should be considered with caution due to lack of data on HRT type, route of administration, duration of treatment, and potential comorbidities. Trial registration: The App Ethics has been approved by KCL ethics Committee REMAS ID 18210, review reference LRS-19/20-18210

    Clinical manifestations of patients with Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID- 19) attending at hospitals in Bangladesh

    Authors: Md. Shahed Morshed; Abdullah Al Mosabbir; Prodipta Chowdhury; Sheikh Mohammad Ashadullah; Mohammad Sorowar Hossain

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165100 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Bangladesh is in the rising phase of the ongoing pandemic of the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The scientific literature on clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients from Bangladesh is scarce. This study aimed to report the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study at three dedicated COVID-19 hospitals. The severity of the COVID-19 cases was assessed based on the WHO interim guidance. Data were collected only from non-critical COVID-19 patients as critical patients required immediate intensive care admission making them unable to respond to the questions. A total of 103 RT-PCR confirmed non-critical COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Most of the patients (71.8%) were male TRANS. Mild, moderate and severe illness were assessed in 74.76%, 9.71% and 15.53% of patients respectively. Nearly 52.4% of patients had a co-morbidity, with hypertension MESHD hypertension HP being the most common (34%), followed by diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (21.4%) and ischemic heart disease MESHD (9.7%). Fever MESHD Fever HP (78.6%), weakness (68%) and cough MESHD cough HP (44.7%) were the most common clinical manifestations. Other common symptoms included loss of appetite (37.9%), difficulty in breathing (37.9%), altered sensation of taste or smell (35.0%), headache MESHD headache HP (32%) and body ache (32%). The median time from onset of symptom TRANS to attending hospitals was 7 days (IQR 4-10). This study will help both the clinicians and epidemiologists to understand the magnitude and clinical spectrum of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh.

    Echocardiographic patterns in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

    Authors: Antoine Vieillard-Baron; Cyril Charron; Ségolène Tran; Matthieu Godement; Xavier Repessé; Pierre-Alexandre Haruel; Amélie Prigent; Samuel Castro; Lola Girodias; Emilie Charbit; Foucault Isnard; Mohamed Saleh; Koceila Bouferrache; Bernard Page; Romain Jouffroy; Guillaume Geri

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Need for catecholamines is frequent in COVID-19 patients, but the main echocardiographic patterns are unknown. The objective was to report the main echo patterns in critically-ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: Observational and descriptive study in consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU between March 12 and May 8, 2020. Systematic critical care echocardiography (CCE) was performed and retrospectively analyzed off-line. Echo values are reported in the overall population and in patients who required catecholamine infusion during the first 2 days following admission (D1-2) or afterwards until day 7 (D3-7). Results: Of the 79 patients (78% male TRANS; median age TRANS 63 [56-71]; body mass index 29 [26-30]) included, 90% had at least 1 comorbidity. PaO2/FiO2 at admission was 85 [67-162] mmHg. 53% of patients were mechanically ventilated. ICU length of stay was 9 [5-16] days and mortality 34%. 134 echocardiographic studies were performed during the first week in 65 patients. Pulmonary artery acceleration time was decreased (77 [65-97] ms), suggesting pulmonary hypertension MESHD hypertension HP. All 39 patients (49%) who required catecholamine infusion underwent CCE and 25.6% had left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, 28.2% acute cor pulmonale HP (ACP), 7.7% hypovolemia MESHD hypovolemia HP, and 38.5% vasoplegia MESHD. Modification of echo patterns was observed at D3-7, with less LV systolic dysfunction and more ACP, which was the most frequent pattern. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography in 6 patients with ACP indicated intrapulmonary thrombus in 4. Conclusion: Different echocardiographic patterns were observed during the first week following ICU admission in COVID-19 patients. ACP was frequent and often related to thrombus in the pulmonary circulation. 

    Changes in the behavioural determinants of health during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: gender TRANS, socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in 5 British cohort studies

    Authors: David Bann; Aase Villadsen; Jane Maddock; Alun Hughes; George Ploubidis; Richard Silverwood; Praveetha Patalay

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164244 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and consequent physical distancing measures are expected to have far-reaching consequences on population health, particularly in already disadvantaged groups. These consequences include changes in health impacting behaviours (such as exercise, sleep, diet and alcohol use) which are arguably important drivers of health inequalities. We sought to add to the rapidly developing empirical evidence base investigating the impacts of the pandemic on such behavioural outcomes. Methods: Using data from five nationally representative British cohort studies (born 2001, 1990, 1970, 1958, and 1946), we investigated sleep, physical activity (exercise), diet, and alcohol intake (N=14,297). Using measures of each behaviour reported before and during lockdown, we investigated change in each behaviour, and whether such changes differed by age TRANS/cohort, gender TRANS, ethnicity, and socioeconomic position (SEP; childhood social class, education attainment, and adult TRANS reporting of financial difficulties). Binary or ordered logistic regression models were used, adjusting for prior measures of each health behaviour and accounting for study design and non-response weights. Meta-analyses were used to pool cohort-specific estimates and formally test for heterogeneity across cohorts. Results: Changes in these outcomes occurred in in both directions ie, shifts from the middle part of the distribution to both declines and increases in sleep, exercise, and alcohol use. For all outcomes, older cohorts were less likely to report changes in behaviours compared with younger cohorts. In the youngest cohort (born 2001), the following shifts were more evident: increases in exercise, fruit and vegetable intake, sleep, and less frequent alcohol consumption. After adjustment for prior behaviour levels, during lockdown females TRANS were less likely to sleep within the typical range (6-9 hours) yet exercised more frequently; lower SEP was associated with lower odds of sleeping within the typical range (6-9 hours), lower exercise participation, and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables; and ethnic minorities were less likely than White participants to sleep within the typical range (6-9 hours), exercise less frequently, yet reported less frequent alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the multiple changes to behavioural outcomes that may have occurred due to COVID-19 lockdown, and the differential impacts across generation, gender TRANS, SEP and ethnicity. Such changes require further monitoring given their possible implications to population health and the widening of health inequalities.

    Gender TRANS Differences in Anger Among Hospital Medical Staff Exposed to Patients with COVID-19 in a German Tertiary Center

    Authors: Ulrich Wesemann; Nino Hadjamu; Reza Wakili; Gerd Willmund; Judith Vogel; Tienush Rassaf; Johannes Siebermair

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Occupational exposure to patients with COVID-19 is a stress factor. The aim of this study was to assess gender TRANS differences in anger among medical hospital staff. N = 78 hospital employees completed State-Trait Inventory-2. Female TRANS personnel showed higher scores in the main “trait anger” scale and its subscale “anger temperament”, while “anger control-out” was significant lower. More specific training for female TRANS hospital staff could achieve health-related equality. Focusing on anger as a leading indicator could lead to better prevention and self-monitoring.

    COVID-19 case-fatality rate and demographic and socioeconomic influencers: a worldwide spatial regression analysis based on country-level data

    Authors: Yang Cao; Ayako Hiyoshi; Scott Montgomery

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165811 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: medRxiv

    We used the COVID-19 dataset obtained from the Our World in Data website and investigated the associations between COVID-19 CFR and nine country-level indices of 209 countries/territories using the Matern correlation regression model. Spatial dependence among the data was controlled using the latitude and longitude of the centroid of the countries/territories. Stratified analyses were conducted by economic level and COVID-19 testing policy. The average of country/territory-specific COVID-19 CFR is about 2-3% worldwide, which is higher than previously reported at 0.7-1.3%. Statistically significant associations were observed between COVID-19 CFR and population size and proportion of female TRANS smokers. The open testing policies are associated with decreased CFR. Strictness of anti-COVID-19 measures was not statistically significantly associated with CFR overall, but the higher stringency index was associated with higher CFR in higher income countries with active testing policies. The statistically significant association between population size and COVID-19 CRF suggests the healthcare strain and lower treatment efficiency in countries with large populations. The observed association between smoking in females TRANS and COVID-19 CFR might be due to that the proportion of female TRANS smokers reflected broadly income level of a country. When testing is warranted and healthcare resources are sufficient, strict quarantine and/or lockdown measures might result in excess deaths MESHD in underprivileged populations.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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