Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Disease (504)

Infections (482)

Coronavirus Infections (335)

Death (285)

Fever (207)


Human Phenotype

Fever (206)

Cough (168)

Hypertension (161)

Pneumonia (156)

Anxiety (101)


Transmission

gender (1247)

age categories (957)

Transmission (153)

fomite (109)

contact tracing (89)


Seroprevalence
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    Infection MESHD and mortality of healthcare workers worldwide from COVID-19: a scoping review

    Authors: Soham Bandyopadhyay; Ronnie E Baticulon; Murtaza Kadhum; Muath Alser; Daniel K Ojuka; Yara Badereddin; Archith Kamath; Sai Arathi Parepalli; Grace Brown; Sara Iharchane; Sofia Gandino; Zara Markovic-Obiago; Samuel Scott; Emery Manirambona; Asif Machhada; Aditi Aggarwal; Lydia Benazaize; Mina Ibrahim; David Kim; Isabel Tol; Elliott H Taylor; Alexandra Knighton; Dorothy Bbaale; Duha Jasim; Heba Alghoul; Henna Reddy; Hibatullah Abuelgasim; Alicia Sigler; Kirandeep Saini; Leenah Abuelgasim; Mario Moran-Romero; Mary Kumarendran; Najlaa Abu Jamie; Omaima Ali; Raghav Sudarshan; Riley Dean; Rumi Kisyova; Sonam Kelzang; Sophie Roche; Tazin Ahsan; Yethrib Mohamed; Andile Maqhawe Dube; Grace Paida Gwini; Rashidah Gwokyala; Robin Brown; Mohammad Rabiul Karim Khan Papon; Zoe Li; Salvador Sun Ruzats; Somy Charuvila; Noel Peter; Khalil Khalidy; Nkosikhona Moyo; Osaid Alser; Arielis Solano; Eduardo Robles-Perez; Aiman Tariq; Mariam Gaddah; Spyros Kolovos; Faith C Muchemwa; Abdullah Saleh; Amanda Gosman; Rafael Pinedo-Villanueva; Anant Jani; Roba Khundkar

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.20119594 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives To estimate COVID-19 infections MESHD and deaths MESHD in healthcare workers (HCWs) from a global perspective. Design Scoping review. Methods Two parallel searches of academic bibliographic databases and grey literature were undertaken. Governments were also contacted for further information where possible. Due to the time-sensitive nature of the review and the need to report the most up-to-date information for an ever-evolving situation, there were no restrictions on language, information sources utilised, publication status, and types of sources of evidence. The AACODS checklist was used to appraise each source of evidence. Outcome measures Publication characteristics, country-specific data points, COVID-19 specific data, demographics of affected HCWs, and public health measures employed Results A total of 152,888 infections MESHD and 1413 deaths MESHD were reported. Infections MESHD were mainly in women (71.6%) and nurses (38.6%), but deaths MESHD were mainly in men (70.8%) and doctors (51.4%). Limited data suggested that general practitioners and mental health nurses were the highest risk specialities for deaths MESHD. There were 37.17 deaths MESHD reported per 100 infections MESHD for healthcare workers aged TRANS over 70. Europe had the highest absolute numbers of reported infections MESHD (119628) and deaths MESHD (712), but the Eastern Mediterranean region had the highest number of reported deaths MESHD per 100 infections MESHD (5.7). Conclusions HCW COVID-19 infections MESHD and deaths MESHD follow that of the general world population. The reasons for gender TRANS and speciality differences require further exploration, as do the low rates reported from Africa and India. Although physicians working in certain specialities may be considered high-risk due to exposure to oronasal secretions, the risk to other specialities must not be underestimated. Elderly TRANS HCWs may require assigning to less risky settings such as telemedicine, or administrative positions. Our pragmatic approach provides general trends, and highlights the need for universal guidelines for testing and reporting of infections MESHD in HCWs.

    Comparison of epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Vietnam

    Authors: Toan H Ha; Gualberto Ruano; Judy Lewis

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.03.20121467 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background. There are limited data on COVID-19 patients in Vietnam. The paper examined and compared epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Vietnam. Methods. The data was obtained using publicly available information from the official website of Vietnam Ministry of Health covering a period of 01/23/2020 to 05/27/2020. T-test, Chi-square test and Fishers Exact test were utilized to compare characteristics of COVID-19 patients between under-treatment and discharge groups and between overseas and non-overseas travel TRANS groups. Results. Vietnam had a total of 327 cases of COVID-19 as of May 27, 2020. The median age TRANS of patients was 30 years (ranging from 3 months to 88 years). About 68% of patients (n=223) had acquired the disease MESHD outside the country while 32% were infected within the country. Among those infected inside the country, 66% were women. Men were more likely than women to be infected from overseas (p<0.001). Younger patients were significantly associated with international travel TRANS (p=.001). While patients in the South reported highest levels of overseas travel TRANS history (77.9%), those (100%) in the Central reporting the highest level of being discharged (p<0.001). Women (54.7%) had a higher rate of discharge compared to men (45.3%) [p<0.001]. Nearly 86% have recovered and discharged from hospitals. There has been no reported fatality. Conclusion. A majority of COVID-19 cases in Vietnam were acquired from abroad. A significantly higher number of women than men were infected inside the country calling for further research about gender TRANS disparities in the fight against COVID-19 in Vietnam.

    Anemia MESHD Anemia HP and iron metabolism in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Petek Eylul Taneri; Sergio Alejandro Gomez-Ochoa; Erand Llanaj; Peter Francis Raguindin; Lydia Z. Rojas; Beatrice Minder Wyssmann; Doris Kopp-Heim; Wolf E. Hautz; Michele F. Eisenga; Oscar H. Franco; Marija Glisic; Taulant Muka

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.20122267 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Iron metabolism and anemia MESHD anemia HP may play an important role in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MESHD in Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). If confirmed, this has important implications for the more than 1.62 billion people estimated to have anemia MESHD anemia HP globally. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate biomarkers of anemia MESHD anemia HP and iron metabolism (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, soluble transferrin receptor, hepcidin, haptoglobin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, erythropoietin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrine, and prevalence SERO of anemia MESHD anemia HP) in patients diagnosed with COVID-19, and explore their prognostic value. Six bibliographic databases were searched up to May 5th 2020. We included 56 unique studies, with data from 14,044 COVID-19 patients (59 years median age TRANS). Pooled mean hemoglobin and ferritin levels in COVID-19 patients across all ages TRANS were 130.41 g/L (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 128.42; 132.39) and 673.91 ng/mL (95% CI, 420.98; 926.84), respectively. Hemoglobin levels decreased with advancing age TRANS and increasing percentage of comorbid and critically ill patients, while levels of ferritin increased with increasing male TRANS proportion and mean hemoglobin levels. Compared to moderate cases, severe cases had lower pooled mean hemoglobin [weighted mean difference (WMD), -4.21 (95% CI -6.63; -1.78)] and higher ferritin [WMD, -730.55 ng/mL (95% CI 413.24; 1047.85)]. A significant difference in mean ferritin level of 1027.23 ng/mL (95% CI 819.53; 1234.94) was found between survivors and non-survivors, but not in hemoglobin levels. No studies provided information on anemia MESHD anemia HP or other biomarkers of interest. Future studies should explore the impact of iron metabolism and anemia MESHD anemia HP and in the pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of COVID-19.

    Ozone therapy for patients with SARS-COV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP: a single-center prospective cohort study

    Authors: ALBERTO HERNANDEZ; MONTSERRAT VINALS; ASUNCION PABLOS; FRANCISCO VILAS; PETER J PAPADAKOS; DUMINDA N WIJEYSUNDERA; MARC VIVES

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.03.20117994 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Importance Aside from supportive management, there remains no specific treatment for Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: Determine whether ozonated autohemotherapy is associated with a shorter time to clinical improvement in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Design: Single-center proof-of-concept prospective cohort study. Setting: Internal Medicine ward at Policlinica Ibiza Hospital, Spain. Participants: Eighteen consecutive patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP who were admitted to hospital between 20th March and 19th April 2020. Exposures: Patients in the ozonated autohemotherapy arm received hemotherapy twice daily starting on the day of admission for a median of 4 days. Each treatment involved administration of 200 mL autologous whole blood SERO enriched with 200 mL of oxygen-ozone mixture with a 40 g/mL ozone concentration. Patients in the control arm received supportive care. Assignment to hemotherapy versus usual care was determined based on the admitting physician on the day of admission, with only one of the three possible physicians prescribing ozonated autohemotherapy Main Outcomes: The primary outcome was time from hospital admission to clinical improvement, which was defined as either hospital discharge or a two-point improvement in clinical status measured on a six-point ordinal scale. Secondary outcomes were clinical improvement measured on the 7th, 14th and 28th day after admission, as well as time to a 2-fold reduction in concentrations of C-protein reactive, ferritin, D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase. Results: The mean age TRANS of the cohort was 68 y and 72% (n=13) were male TRANS. Nine patients (50%) received ozonated autohemotherapy beginning on the day of admission. In unadjusted comparisons, ozonated autohemotherapy was associated with significantly shorter time to clinical improvement (median [IQR]), 7 days [6-10] vs 28 days [8-31], p=0.04) and significantly higher proportion of patients achieving 14-day clinical improvement (88.8% vs 33.3%, p=0.01). In risk-adjusted analyses, ozonated autohemotherapy was associated with a shorter mean time to clinical improvement (-11.3 days, p=0.04, 95% CI -22.25 to -0.42). Conclusions and Relevance: Ozonated autohemotherapy was associated with a significantly shorter time to clinical improvement in this prospective cohort study. Given the small sample size and single-center study design, these observations require evaluation in larger randomized controlled trials.

    Clinical Management and Mortality among COVID-19 Cases in Sub-Saharan Africa: A retrospective study from Burkina Faso and simulated case data analysis

    Authors: Laura Skrip; Karim Derra; Mikaila Kaboré; Navideh Noori; Adama Gansané; Innocent Valéa; Halidou Tinto; Bicaba W. Brice; Mollie Van Gordon; Brittany Hagedorn; Hervé Hien; Benjamin Muir Althouse; Edward Wenger; André Lin Ouédraogo

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.20119784 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Absolute numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths MESHD reported to date in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region have been significantly lower than those across the Americas, Asia, and Europe. As a result, there has been limited information about the demographic and clinical characteristics of deceased cases in the region, as well as the impacts of different case management strategies. Methods: Data from deceased cases reported across SSA through May 10, 2020 and from hospitalized cases in Burkina Faso through April 15, 2020 were analyzed. Demographic, epidemiological, and clinical information on deceased cases in SSA was derived through a line-list of publicly available information and, for cases in Burkina Faso, from aggregate records at the Center Hospitalier Universitaire de Tengandogo in Ouagadougou. A synthetic case population was derived probabilistically using distributions of age TRANS, sex, and underlying conditions from populations of West African countries to assess individual risk factors and treatment effect sizes. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the adjusted odds of survival for patients receiving oxygen therapy or convalescent plasma SERO, based on therapeutic effectiveness observed for other respiratory illnesses. Results: Across SSA, deceased cases for which demographic data are available have been predominantly male TRANS (63/103, 61.2%) and over 50 years of age TRANS (59/75, 78.7%). In Burkina Faso, specifically, the majority of deceased cases either did not seek care at all or were hospitalized for a single day (59.4%, 19/32); hypertension MESHD hypertension HP and diabetes were often reported as underlying conditions. After adjustment for sex, age TRANS, and underlying conditions in the synthetic case population, the odds of mortality for cases not receiving oxygen therapy was significantly higher than those receiving oxygen, such as due to disruptions to standard care (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.56-2.75). Cases receiving convalescent plasma SERO had 50% reduced odds of mortality than those who did not (95% CI: 0.24-0.93). Conclusion: Investment in sustainable production and maintenance of supplies for oxygen therapy, along with messaging around early and appropriate use for healthcare providers, caregivers, and patients could reduce COVID-19 deaths MESHD in SSA. Further investigation into convalescent plasma SERO is warranted, as data on its effectiveness specifically in treating COVID-19 becomes available. The success of supportive or curative clinical interventions will depend on earlier treatment seeking, such that community engagement and risk communication will be critical components of the response.

    Risk perception related to COVID-19 among the Iranian general population: An application of the extended parallel process model

    Authors: Leila Jahangiry; Fatemeh Bakhtari; Zahara Sohrabi; Parvin Reihani; Sirous Samei; Koen Ponnet; Ali Montazeri

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-33493/v2 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a major global public health challenge. This study aimed to investigate how people perceived the COVID-19 outbreak using the components of the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) and to find out how this might contribute to possible behavioral responses to the prevention and control of the disease MESHD.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted online in Iran in March and April 2020. The Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire via Porsline. Participants were recruited using online applications and posts on a number of platforms such as Telegram, WhatsApp, and Instagram asking people to take part in the study. To collect data a self-designed questionnaire based on the EPPM was used in order to measure the risk perception (efficacy, defensive responses, perceived treat) related to the COVID-19. Descriptive statics, chi-square, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA), were used to explore the data.Results: A total of 3,727 individuals with a mean age TRANS (SD) of 37.0 (11.1) years participated in the study. The results revealed significant progressive increases in efficacy, defensive responses and perceived treat particularly among those aged TRANS 60 and over. Women had significantly higher scores than men on some aspects such as self-efficacy, reactance, and avoidance but men had higher perceived susceptibility scores for COVID-19 than women. Overall 56.4% of participants were engaged in danger control (preventive behavior) while the remaining 43.6% were engaged in fear control (non-preventive behavior) process.Conclusion: More than half of all participants motivated by danger control. This indicated that more than half of participants had high perceived efficacy (i.e., self-efficacy and response efficacy). Self-efficacy scores were significantly higher among participants who were older, female TRANS, single, lived in rural areas, and had good economic status. The results suggest that socioeconomic and demographic factors are the main determinants of risk perceptions for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Cross-sectional study on awareness and knowledge of COVID-19 among senior pharmacy students.

    Authors: Marwa Samir Hamza; Osama Ahmed Badary; Mohamed Mohey Elmazar

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-33352/v1 Date: 2020-06-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Extraordinary actions have been implemented in an effort to control the rapid spread of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in Egypt. People’s adherence to control measures is influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the disease MESHD. Therefore, in the present study we assessed pharmacy senior students’ knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the COVID-19 pandemic. An online questionnaire was created and it consisted of 12 questions testing their knowledge about COVID-19nclinical characteristics, transmission TRANS routes and prevention and control steps. Among senior pharmacy students (n=238), 70% were females TRANS and 63% were living in greater Cairo. Their main source of information included social media (70%), published articles (48%) and television (48%). The overall correct knowledge score was 83%. Most of the students displayed a good COVID-19 knowledge level (72.5% of the students). The students were least informed when trying to answer questions about hyper-coagulation, as a major cause for death MESHD in patients with severe COVID-19, and about the timings on the necessity to wear masks practice. Assessment of students’ attitudes and practices towards COVID-19 reflected that 87% of them were confident that health care teams and scientists could win the fight against the virus. In addition, 72% of students agreed that COVID-19 will be controlled successfully. The greater the students’ knowledge, the more confident they felt that COVID-19 will be controlled successfully (OR = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-4.72). Good behavioral practice towards COVID-19 control was confirmed when 87% of students answered that they didn’t go out to any crowded place. Females TRANS were 3.6 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–3.11) more likely to avoid going out than males TRANS. Bad behavioral practice became evident when approximately 50% of students admitted that they did not wear masks when they left their house. Therefore, more efforts should be taken to protect future pharmacists from this pandemic.

    Discrepancies in sex-specific COVID-19 outcomes in South Asia

    Authors: Nusrat Khan; Dr Shammi Luhar; Dr Dinesh Prasad Koirala; Dr Tshokey Tshokey; Dr Rajiv Chowdhury

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-33263/v1 Date: 2020-06-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Divergent sex and gender TRANS norms in South Asia are key determinants of health conditions and healthcare access. However, sex-discrepancies among South Asians in important COVID-19 outcomes are unknown. We report and examine sex-specific patterning of infection, hospitalisation, deaths MESHD, case-fatality and recovery in South Asia, and conclude that contrary to trends in many high-income countries, there is a male TRANS predominance in the number of COVID-19 cases and hospitalisations, and a comparatively very low men to women case-fatality-ratio. Our findings emphasise the demand for detailed research into reasons for these sex-discrepancies to develop combative strategies in settings with suboptimal health systems infrastructure.

    The effect of sex hormone on COVID-19: analysis of laboratory-confirmed 5061 patients in South Korea

    Authors: Jae Hoon Lee; Yong Chan Kim; Si Hyun Cho; Jinae Lee; Seng Chan You; Young Goo Song; Young Bin Won; Yun Soo Park

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-33353/v1 Date: 2020-06-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Limited data describing the effect of sex hormone on coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is available. We evaluated the effect of sex hormone on prevalence SERO and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Retrospective cohort study was performed using the nationwide claims data of 5061 adult TRANS patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in South Korea, from January 20 to April 8, 2020. COVID-19 was most prevalent in women of the 20-39 age group TRANS (1250 [44.14%]). Men were more likely to receive oxygen therapy (144 [6.46%] vs 131 [4.63%], P=0.004), be admitted to the intensive care unit (60 [2.69%] vs 53 [1.87%], P=0.049), and stay longer after admission to the intensive care unit (19.70±11.80 vs 14.75±9.23, P=0.016). However, there was no significant difference in mortality rates between men and women. In multivariable Cox analysis, independent risk factors for mortality were older age TRANS and underlying co-morbidities, rather than sex. To evaluate the effect of HRT among women, subgroup analysis was implemented using age TRANS-matched case-control data with a 1:3 ratio of females TRANS receiving HRT to those who did not. HRT did not have statistically significant association with clinical outcomes. This study suggests that sex hormone may not affect prevalence SERO and clinical outcome of COVID-19 in South Korea.

    Insights into the Epidemiology of the First Wave of COVID-19 ICU Admissions in South Wales – the Interplay between Ethnicity and Deprivation

    Authors: Thomas Baumer; Emily Phillips; Amrit Dhadda; Tamas Szakmany; Gwent COVID-19 Group

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0029.v1 Date: 2020-06-04 Source: preprints.org

    On the 9th March 2020, the first patient with COVID-19 was admitted to ICU in the Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Wales. We prospectively recorded the rate of ICU admissions of 52 patients with COVID-19 over 60 days, focusing on the epidemiology of ethnicity and deprivation. Patients were 65% (34 of 52) male TRANS and had a median (IQR) age TRANS of 55 (48-62) years. Prevalent comorbidities included obesity MESHD obesity HP (52%); diabetes (33%), and asthma MESHD asthma HP (23%). COVID-19 hospital and ICU inpatient numbers peaked on days 23 and 39, respectively – a lag of 16 days. The ICU mortality rate was 33% (17 of 52). Black, Asian and Minority Ethnics (BAME) population represented 35% of ICU COVID-19 admissions (18 of 52) and 35% of deaths MESHD (6 of 17). Within the BAME group, 72% (13 of 18) were found to reside in geographical areas representing the 20% most deprived in Wales, versus 27% of Caucasians (9 of 33). Less than 5% of the population within the hospital catchment area are of BAME descent, yet they represent a disproportionately high proportion of patients with ICU admission and mortality suffering from COVID-19. The interplay between ethnicity and deprivation, which is complex, may be a factor in our findings. This in turn could be related to an increased prevalence SERO of co-morbidities; higher community exposure; or genetic polymorphisms.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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