Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Disease (511)

Infections (485)

Coronavirus Infections (338)

Death (287)

Fever (208)

Human Phenotype

Fever (207)

Cough (168)

Hypertension (161)

Pneumonia (159)

Anxiety (101)


gender (1266)

age categories (970)

Transmission (155)

fomite (111)

contact tracing (92)

    displaying 571 - 580 records in total 1269
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    ACE2 levels are altered in comorbidities linked to severe outcome in COVID-19

    Authors: Valur Emilsson; Elias F Gudmundsson; Thor Aspelund; Brynjolfur G Jonsson; Alexander Gudjonsson; Lenore J Launer; John R Lamb; Valborg Gudmundsdottir; Lori L Jennings; Vilmundur Gudnason

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.20122044 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Aims: Severity of outcome in COVID-19 is disproportionately higher among the obese, males TRANS, smokers, those suffering from hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, kidney disease MESHD, coronary heart disease MESHD (CHD) and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined if serum SERO levels of ACE2, the cellular entry point for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, were altered in these high-risk groups. Methods: Associations of serum SERO ACE2 levels to hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, T2D, obesity MESHD obesity HP, CHD, smokers and males TRANS in a single center population-based study of 5457 Icelanders from the Age TRANS, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study ( AGES TRANS-RS) of the elderly TRANS (mean age TRANS 75+/-6 years). Results: Smokers, males TRANS, and individuals with T2D or obesity MESHD obesity HP have altered serum SERO levels of ACE2 that may influence productive infection MESHD of SARS-CoV-2 in these high-risk groups. Conclusion: ACE2 levels are upregulated in some patient groups with comorbidities linked to COVID-19 and as such may have an emerging role as a circulating biomarker for severity of outcome in COVID-19.

    A tertiary center experience of multiple myeloma MESHD multiple myeloma HP patients with COVID-19: lessons learned and the path forward

    Authors: Bo Wang; Oliver Van Oekelen; Tarek Mouhieddine; Diane Marie Del Valle; Joshua Richter; Hearn Jay Cho; Shambavi Richard; Ajai Chari; Sacha Gnjatic; Miriam Merad; Sundar Jagannath; Samir Parekh; Deepu Madduri

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.20122846 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, has resulted in over 100,000 deaths MESHD in the United States. Our institution has treated over 2,000 COVID-19 patients during the pandemic in New York City. The pandemic directly impacted cancer patients and the organization of cancer care. Mount Sinai Hospital has a large and diverse multiple myeloma MESHD multiple myeloma HP (MM) population. Herein, we report the characteristics of COVID-19 infection MESHD and serological response in MM patients in a large tertiary care institution in New York. Methods: We performed a retrospective study on a cohort of 58 patients with a plasma SERO-cell disorder (54 MM, 4 smoldering MM) who developed COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and April 30, 2020. We report epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics including persistence of viral detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing, treatments initiated, and outcomes. Results: Of the 58 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 36 were hospitalized and 22 were managed at home. The median age TRANS was 67 years; 52% of patients were male TRANS and 63% were non-white. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP (64%), hyperlipidemia MESHD hyperlipidemia HP (62%), obesity MESHD obesity HP (37%), diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (28%), chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (24%) and lung disease MESHD (21%) were the most common comorbidities. In the total cohort, 14 patients (24%) died. Older age TRANS (>70 years), male TRANS sex, cardiovascular risk, and patients not in complete remission (CR) or stringent CR were significantly (p<0.05) associated with hospitalization. Among hospitalized patients, laboratory findings demonstrated elevation of traditional inflammatory markers (CRP, ferritin, D-dimer) and a significant (p<0.05) association between elevated inflammatory markers, severe hypogammaglobulinemia, non-white race, and mortality. Ninety-six percent (22/23) of patients developed antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO at a median of 32 days after initial diagnosis. Median time to PCR negativity was 43 (range 19-68) days from initial positive PCR. Conclusions: Drug exposure and MM disease MESHD status at the time of contracting COVID-19 had no bearing on mortality. Mounting a severe inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 and severe hypogammaglobulinemia were associated with higher mortality. The majority of patients mounted an antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2. These findings pave a path to identification of vulnerable MM patients who need early intervention to improve outcome in future outbreaks of COVID-19.

    The attitudes, perceptions and experiences of medical school applicants following the closure of schools and cancellation of public examinations in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Katherine Woolf; Dave Harrison; I.C. McManus

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.02.20116855 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To describe medical applicants' experiences of education and their views on changes to medical school admissions, including the awarding of calculated grades, following the 2020 closure of schools and universities, and the cancellation of public examinations in the United Kingdom due to the COVID-19/coronavirus pandemic. To understand how applicants from diverse social backgrounds might differ in these regards. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire study forming part of the longitudinal United Kingdom Medical Applicant Cohort Study (UKMACS). Setting United Kingdom medical school admissions. Participants 2887 participants (68% female TRANS; 64% with at least one degree-educated parent TRANS; 63% with at least one parent TRANS in the highest socioeconomic group) completed an online questionnaire between 8th and 22nd April 2020. To be invited to complete the questionnaire, participants had to have registered to take the University Clinical Admissions Test (UCAT) in 2019 and to have agreed to be invited to take part in the study, or they needed to have completed one or more previous UKMACS questionnaires. They also need to have been seriously considering applying to study medicine in the UK for entry in 2020 between May and October 2019, and be resident in the UK or Islands/Crown Dependencies. Main outcome measures Views on calculated grades, views on potential changes to medical school admissions and teaching in 2020 and 2021, reported experiences of education following the closure of educational institutions in March 2020. Results Respondents had concerns about the calculated grades that will replace A-level examinations, especially female TRANS applicants and applicants from Black Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds who felt teachers would find it difficult to grade and rank students accurately, as well as those from non-selective state schools and those living in deprived areas who had some concerns about the grade standardisation process. Calculated grades were not considered fair enough by a majority to use in the acceptance or rejection of medical offer-holders, but several measures - including interview and aptitude test scores - were considered fair enough to use in combination. Respondents from non-selective state (public) schools reported less use of and less access to educational resources compared to their counterparts at private/selective schools. In particular they reported less online teaching in real time, and reported spending less time studying during the lockdown. Conclusions The coronavirus pandemic will have significant and long term impacts on the selection, education and performance SERO of our future medical workforce. It is important that the views and experiences of medical applicants from diverse backgrounds are taken into consideration in decisions affecting their futures and the future of the profession.

    VariplexTM test system fails to reliably detect SARS-CoV-2 directly from respiratory samples without RNA extraction

    Authors: Florian Eckel; Franziska Küsters; Bernhard Drossel; Markus Konert; Hans Mattes; Stefan Schopf

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Diagnosis of COVID is performed by PCR methods, but their capacitiy is limited by the requirement of high-level facilities and instruments. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method has been utilized for the detection of isolated virus-specific RNA. Preliminary data suggest the possibility of isothermal amplification directly from respiratory samples without RNA extraction.All patients admitted to our hospital were screened for SARS-CoV-2 by routine. Respiratory samples were tested by variplex system based on LAMP method directly without RNA extraction and by PCR. Confirmation or exclusion of clinical COVID diagnosis was based on history, examination and findings. Primary endpoint was the false negative rate of variplex test compared to PCR.A total of 153 patients were included in the study. Median age TRANS was 79 years and male TRANS/ female TRANS ratio was 45%/55%. Prevalence SERO of clinical COVID diagnosis was 61.4%. Variplex test and PCR assay was positive in 15.0% and 45.5%, respectively. In 109 patients variplex test and PCR assay were performed simultaneously. False negative rate of variplex test compared to PCR was 83.0%.The potential of LAMP-technology using isolated RNA has been demonstrated impressively by others and excellent sensitivity SERO and specivity of detecting SARS-CoV-2 has been reported. However, without RNA extraction the variplex test system failed to reliable detect SARS-CoV-2 directly in respiratory samples.

    The psychological effects of COVID-19 on frontline healthcare workers and how they are coping: a web-based, cross-sectional study from Pakistan

    Authors: Muhammad Salman; Muhammad Hussnain Raza; Zia Ul Mustafa; Tahir Mehmood Khan; Noman Asif; Humera Tahir; Naureen Shehzadi; Khalid Hussain

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.03.20119867 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background: High level stress is expected when crises starts affecting people's lives and communities which is witnessed in the past epidemics. Infectious diseases MESHD outbreaks like the ongoing COVID19 pandemic have negative impact on healthcare workers' (HCWs) mental health, which needs to be investigated. Therefore, we aimed to assess the psychological impact of COVID-19 on frontline HCWs and their coping strategies. Methods: A web-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The generalized anxiety HP scale (GAD-7), patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Brief-COPE were used to assess anxiety HP, depression and coping strategies of the respondents. Results: The mean age TRANS of respondents (N = 398) was 28.67 {+/-} 4.15 years, with majority of medical doctors (52%). The prevalence SERO of anxiety HP and depression were 21.4% and 21.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference of anxiety HP and depression scores among doctors, nurses and pharmacists. Females TRANS had significantly higher anxiety HP (p = 0.003) and depression (p = 0.001) scores than males TRANS. Moreover, HCWs performing duties in COVID-19 ICU had significantly higher anxiety HP score than those from isolation wards (p = 0.020) and other departments (p = 0.014). Depression, not anxiety HP, score were higher among those who did not receive the infection MESHD prevention training. Most frequently adopted coping strategy was religious coping (5.98 {+/-} 1.73) followed by acceptance (5.59 {+/-} 1.55) and coping planning (4.91 {+/-} 1.85). Conclusion: A considerable proportion of HCWs are having generalized anxiety HP and depression during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings call for interventions to mitigate mental health risks in HCWs.

    Risk Perception and Behavioral Responses Related to COVID-19 Among the Iranian General Population: An Application of the Extended Parallel Process Model

    Authors: Leila Jahangiry; Fatemeh Bakhtari; Zahara Sohrabi; Parvin Reihani; Sirous Samei; Koen Ponnet; Ali Montazeri

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a major global public health challenge. Psychosocial and cultural factors affect adherence to health advice. This study aims to investigate how people have perceived the COVID-19 outbreak using the components of EPPM (i.e., recommended response efficacy, self-efficacy, susceptibility, and severity) and how their behavioral responses contributed to the prevention and control of the disease MESHD.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted online in Iran in March and April. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire via Porsline. Participants were recruited using online applications and posts on platforms such as Telegram, WhatsApp, and Instagram asking people to take part. The posts asked people aged TRANS 15 years and over to take part in a study investigating the control and prevention of COVID-19. EPPM was used to develop a questionnaire measuring the risk perception of and behavioral responses to COVID-19. We used a 29-item, standardized, structured format. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests were used to compare groups. In all tests, a value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: A total of 3,727 individuals with a mean age TRANS (SD) of 37.0 (11.1) years participated in the study. The results by age category TRANS revealed significant progressive increases in perceived susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, and avoidance response scores, particularly among those aged TRANS 60 and over. A total of 56.4% of participants were engaging in danger control processes and 43.6% in fear control processes. Women had significantly higher scores than men for self-efficacy, reactance, and avoidance defensive responses; men had higher perceived susceptibility scores for COVID-19 than women. We also found significantly higher scores for behavioral responses among people with advanced educational backgrounds. Conclusion: more than half of all participants motivated by danger control. This indicates that more than half of participants had high perceived efficacy (i.e., self-efficacy and response efficacy) scores. Self-efficacy scores were significantly higher among participants who were older, female TRANS, single, lived in rural areas, or had good economic status. The results of our study suggest that socioeconomic and demographic factors are the main determinants of psychological responses to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. 

    Maintaining proper health records improves machine learning predictions for novel 2019-nCoV

    Authors: KOFFKA KHAN; Emilie Ramsahai

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: An ongoing outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP continues to affect the whole world including major cities such as China, USA, Italy, France and the United Kingdom. We present outcome ('recovered', 'isolated' or ' death MESHD') risk estimates of the 2019-nCoV over 'early' datasets. A major consideration is how likely are people to die from 2019-nCoV? Method: Accounting for the impact of the variations in the reporting rate of 2019-nCoV, we modelled machine learning techniques (AdaBoost, Bagging, Extra-Trees, Decision-Trees and k-Nearest Neighbours Classifiers) on two 2019-nCoV datasets obtained from Kaggle in March 30th 2020. We used 'country', ' age TRANS' and ' gender TRANS' as features to predict outcome for both datasets. Including the patient's ' disease MESHD' history (only present in the second dataset) to predict outcome for the second dataset. Results: The use of a patient's ' disease MESHD' history improves the prediction of ' death MESHD' by more than a 7-fold. Models ignoring a patent's ' disease MESHD' history performed poorly in test predictions. Conclusion: Our findings indicate the potential of using a patient's ' disease MESHD' history as part of the feature set in machine learning techniques to improve 2019-nCoV predictions. This can have a positive effect on predictive patient treatment and result in ease for current overburdened healthcare systems worldwide, especially with an increasing prevalence SERO of second and third wave re- infections MESHD in some countries.


    Authors: Adriana Roca-Fernandez; Andrea Dennis; Rowan Nicolls; John McGonigle; Matthew Kelly; Rajarshi Banerjee

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.20122457 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background A high proportion of COVID-19 patients develop acute liver dysfunction. Early research has suggested that pre-existing fatty liver MESHD disease MESHD may be a significant risk factor for hospitalisation. Liver fat, in particular, is a modifiable parameter and can be a target for public health policy and individual patient plans. In this study we aimed to assess pre-existing liver disease MESHD as a risk factor for developing symptomatic COVID-19. Methods From 502,506 participants from the UK Biobank, 42,146 underwent MRI ( aged TRANS 45-82), and had measures of liver fat, liver fibroinflammatory disease and liver MESHD iron. Patients were censored on May 28th to determine how many had tested for COVID-19 with symptomatic disease MESHD. UK testing was restricted to those with symptoms in hospital. COVID-19 symptoms included fever MESHD fever HP, dry cough MESHD cough HP, sore throat, diarrhoea and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP. Univariate analysis was performed on liver phenotypic biomarkers to determine if these variables increased risk of symptomatic COVID-19, and compared to previously described risk factors associated with severe COVID-19, including to age TRANS, ethnicity, gender TRANS and obesity MESHD obesity HP, Findings Increased liver fat was associated with a higher risk for symptomatic confirmed COVID-19 in this population in univariate analysis(OR:1.85, p=0.03). In obese participants, only those with concomitant fatty liver MESHD([≥]10%) were at increased risk(OR:2.96, p=0.02), with those having normal liver fat (<5%) showing no increased risk(OR:0.36, p=0.09). Conclusions UK Biobank data demonstrated an association between pre-existing liver disease MESHD and obesity MESHD obesity HP with severe COVID-19, with higher proportions of liver fat in obese individuals a likely risk factor for symptomatic disease MESHD and severity. Public policy measures to protect patients with liver disease MESHD who may have almost double the risk of the general population should be considered, especially as dietary and pharmacological strategies to reduce body weight MESHD and liver fat already exist. Funding University of Oxford, Innovate UK, UK Biobank. Authors are employees of Perspectum Ltd.

    Infection MESHD and mortality of healthcare workers worldwide from COVID-19: a scoping review

    Authors: Soham Bandyopadhyay; Ronnie E Baticulon; Murtaza Kadhum; Muath Alser; Daniel K Ojuka; Yara Badereddin; Archith Kamath; Sai Arathi Parepalli; Grace Brown; Sara Iharchane; Sofia Gandino; Zara Markovic-Obiago; Samuel Scott; Emery Manirambona; Asif Machhada; Aditi Aggarwal; Lydia Benazaize; Mina Ibrahim; David Kim; Isabel Tol; Elliott H Taylor; Alexandra Knighton; Dorothy Bbaale; Duha Jasim; Heba Alghoul; Henna Reddy; Hibatullah Abuelgasim; Alicia Sigler; Kirandeep Saini; Leenah Abuelgasim; Mario Moran-Romero; Mary Kumarendran; Najlaa Abu Jamie; Omaima Ali; Raghav Sudarshan; Riley Dean; Rumi Kisyova; Sonam Kelzang; Sophie Roche; Tazin Ahsan; Yethrib Mohamed; Andile Maqhawe Dube; Grace Paida Gwini; Rashidah Gwokyala; Robin Brown; Mohammad Rabiul Karim Khan Papon; Zoe Li; Salvador Sun Ruzats; Somy Charuvila; Noel Peter; Khalil Khalidy; Nkosikhona Moyo; Osaid Alser; Arielis Solano; Eduardo Robles-Perez; Aiman Tariq; Mariam Gaddah; Spyros Kolovos; Faith C Muchemwa; Abdullah Saleh; Amanda Gosman; Rafael Pinedo-Villanueva; Anant Jani; Roba Khundkar

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.20119594 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives To estimate COVID-19 infections MESHD and deaths MESHD in healthcare workers (HCWs) from a global perspective. Design Scoping review. Methods Two parallel searches of academic bibliographic databases and grey literature were undertaken. Governments were also contacted for further information where possible. Due to the time-sensitive nature of the review and the need to report the most up-to-date information for an ever-evolving situation, there were no restrictions on language, information sources utilised, publication status, and types of sources of evidence. The AACODS checklist was used to appraise each source of evidence. Outcome measures Publication characteristics, country-specific data points, COVID-19 specific data, demographics of affected HCWs, and public health measures employed Results A total of 152,888 infections MESHD and 1413 deaths MESHD were reported. Infections MESHD were mainly in women (71.6%) and nurses (38.6%), but deaths MESHD were mainly in men (70.8%) and doctors (51.4%). Limited data suggested that general practitioners and mental health nurses were the highest risk specialities for deaths MESHD. There were 37.17 deaths MESHD reported per 100 infections MESHD for healthcare workers aged TRANS over 70. Europe had the highest absolute numbers of reported infections MESHD (119628) and deaths MESHD (712), but the Eastern Mediterranean region had the highest number of reported deaths MESHD per 100 infections MESHD (5.7). Conclusions HCW COVID-19 infections MESHD and deaths MESHD follow that of the general world population. The reasons for gender TRANS and speciality differences require further exploration, as do the low rates reported from Africa and India. Although physicians working in certain specialities may be considered high-risk due to exposure to oronasal secretions, the risk to other specialities must not be underestimated. Elderly TRANS HCWs may require assigning to less risky settings such as telemedicine, or administrative positions. Our pragmatic approach provides general trends, and highlights the need for universal guidelines for testing and reporting of infections MESHD in HCWs.

    Comparison of epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Vietnam

    Authors: Toan H Ha; Gualberto Ruano; Judy Lewis

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.03.20121467 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background. There are limited data on COVID-19 patients in Vietnam. The paper examined and compared epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Vietnam. Methods. The data was obtained using publicly available information from the official website of Vietnam Ministry of Health covering a period of 01/23/2020 to 05/27/2020. T-test, Chi-square test and Fishers Exact test were utilized to compare characteristics of COVID-19 patients between under-treatment and discharge groups and between overseas and non-overseas travel TRANS groups. Results. Vietnam had a total of 327 cases of COVID-19 as of May 27, 2020. The median age TRANS of patients was 30 years (ranging from 3 months to 88 years). About 68% of patients (n=223) had acquired the disease MESHD outside the country while 32% were infected within the country. Among those infected inside the country, 66% were women. Men were more likely than women to be infected from overseas (p<0.001). Younger patients were significantly associated with international travel TRANS (p=.001). While patients in the South reported highest levels of overseas travel TRANS history (77.9%), those (100%) in the Central reporting the highest level of being discharged (p<0.001). Women (54.7%) had a higher rate of discharge compared to men (45.3%) [p<0.001]. Nearly 86% have recovered and discharged from hospitals. There has been no reported fatality. Conclusion. A majority of COVID-19 cases in Vietnam were acquired from abroad. A significantly higher number of women than men were infected inside the country calling for further research about gender TRANS disparities in the fight against COVID-19 in Vietnam.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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