Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (29)

Cough (21)

Pneumonia (16)

Fatigue (12)

Falls (7)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 194
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    The Incubation Period TRANS of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2:A Systematic Review

    Authors: ZHIYAO LI; Yu Zhang; Liuqing Peng; Rongrong Gao; Jiarui Jing; Binzhi Ren; Jianguo Xu; Tong Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20164335 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    While the novel coronavirus continues to spread worldwide, the reported incubation period TRANS has varied between studies and is imprecise due to limited data. A literature search with certain selection criteria was conducted on May 30, 2020. In total, sixty-four articles were included, and 854 individual-level data were extracted from 30 studies for pooled analysis. Of these studies, 72% of them reported a median or mean incubation period TRANS of 4-7 days, while our estimated median was 4.9 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.6-5.2). However, the inclusion of 81 asymptomatic TRANS and presymptomatic patients, as well as 31 cases with incubation periods TRANS exceeding 14 days, led to our estimation of 97.5th percentile with 19.2 days (95% CI: 17.4-21.4), beyond the currently suggested 14-day quarantine period. Therefore, we appeal to prolong the quarantine duration, especially for areas that have insufficient testing resources, to protect susceptible populations from being infected.

    COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates by Identification of B and T Cell Multi-Epitopes Against SARS-COV-2

    Authors: Suresh Kumar; Sarmilah Mathavan; Wee Jia Jin; Nur Azznira Bt Azman; Devindren Subramanaiam; Nur Afiqah Binti Zainalabidin; Dhivashini Lingadaran; Zainah Binti Abdul Sattar; Danniya Lakshmi Manickam; Priscilla Sheba Anbananthan; Johan Ahmad Taqiyuddin; Yuvapriya Thevarajan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0092.v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: preprints.org

    Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is a new discovered strain where WHO officially declares the disease MESHD as COVID-19 while the virus responsible for it called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2. The incubation period TRANS of this disease MESHD is between 14 days. Ordinary clinical symptoms that reported around the world include fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, diarrhoea and vomiting MESHD vomiting HP as well as asymptomatic TRANS for certain people. Infection MESHD is spread mainly through broad droplets. In early March 2020, WHO again has announced that COVID-19 is a pandemic with currently no specific treatment. The potential use of SARS-COV-2 proteome as a vaccine candidate by analysing through B-cell and T-cell antigenicity by using a immunoinformatics approach as a vaccine development early stage. In this study, we used consensus sequence for SARS-COV-2 proteome that was retrieved from NCBI database. VaxiJen 2.0 was mainly used to identify the antigenic property of SARS-COV-2 proteins. IEDB then used to analyse the B-cell epitope, the presence of T cell immunogenic epitope in SARS-COV-2 proteins was obtained by using compromise method of MHC class I and II tools that accessible respectively using ProPred-1 server and MHC II Binding Prediction in IEDB database. The best epitopes of B and T-cell epitopes were predicted with high antigencity and the information is disseminated through web-based database resource (https://covid-19.omicstutorials.com/epitopes/). This study will be useful to find a new epitope-based candidate for SARS-COV-2. However, further study needs to be done for the next stages of vaccine development.

    Study on the COVID-19 infection MESHD status, prevention and control strategies among entry people in Shenzhen

    Authors: Jing-Zhong Wang; Xuan Zou; Zi-Qian Xu; Hai-Rui Wang; Bi-Xin Wang; Jian-Fan He

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52913/v1 Date: 2020-08-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS overseas continue to rise for months, while people overseas prefer to return at present. It is risky to have a large number of infected imported cases which may cause COVID-19 spread to China and even lead to outbreak again. In order to prevent imported infection MESHD, Shenzhen implemented the losed-loop management strategy by taking nucleic acid testing (NAT) for severe acute respiratory syndromes MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and medical observation for 14 days among individuals who have epidemic history (Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan province and other countries) within 14 days. Our study described the status of COVID-19 infection MESHD among entry people in Shenzhen, and also evaluated the effect of closed-loop management strategy.Methods A total of 86,844 people overseas entered Shenzhen from January 1 to April 18, 2020, and there were 39 imported cases. We made a descriptive study by analyzing the entry time, reported time, local confirmed cases TRANS in origin countries, and the number of entry people from abroad. The NAT were completed in Shenzhen center for disease MESHD control and prevention (CDC), ten district-level CDCs, as well as fever MESHD fever HP clinics.Results The infection MESHD rate of entry people was 4.49‰ (95% CI: 3.26‰ − 6.05‰). Most of the entry people or imported cases have Chinese nationality. The number of entry people and imported cases in Nanshan and Futian districts were larger than others. 15.73% of the entry people came from the US, and 12.67% came from the UK. 14 imported cases (35.9%) came from the UK, 9 (23.08%) came from the US. The imported risks from the US and UK in Shenzhen were higher than other countries or regions. According to the 14-days’ incubation period TRANS and the number of entry people, individuals from the US since Mar 9 were the high-risk population. Accordingly, entry people from the UK since Mar 13 were the high-risk population. It is important to evaluate the imported risk by analyzing local confirmed cases TRANS status in origin countries or regions and the number of entry people from these countries or regions to Shenzhen. The distribution of entry time and report time for imported cases in Shenzhen were similar. So it is important to prevent and control COVID-19 imported infection MESHD by taking NAT and medical observation at port.Conclusions It is effective to implement closed-loop management strategy for individuals who have epidemic history (Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan province and other countries) within 14 days. In order to control COVID-19 outbreak, we need the collaboration and cooperation at the global, national, and subnational levels to prevent, detect, and respond effectively.

    Development a quantitative segmentation model to assess the effect of comorbidity on patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Cui Zhang; Guangzhao Yang; Chunxian Cai; Zhihua Xu; Hai Wu; Youmin Guo; Zongyu Xie; Hengfeng Shi; Guohua Cheng; Jian Wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52343/v1 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has brought a global disaster. Quantitative lesions may provide the radiological evidence of the severity of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and further to assess the effect of comorbidity on patients with COVID-19.Methods: 294 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled from February, 24, 2020 to June, 1, 2020 from six centers. Multi-task Unet network was used to segment the whole lung and lesions from chest CT images. This deep learning method was pre-trained in 650 CT images (550 in primary dataset and 100 in test dataset) with COVID-19 or community acquired pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and Dice coefficients in test dataset were calculated. 50 CT scans of 50 patients (15 with comorbidity and 35 without comorbidity) were random selected to mark lesions manually. The results will be compared with the automatic segmentation model. Eight quantitative parameters were calculated based on the segmentation results to evaluate the effect of comorbidity on patients with COVID-19.Results: Quantitative segmentation model was proved to be effective and accurate with all Dice coefficients more than 0.85 and all accuracies more than 0.95. Of the 294 patients, 52 (17.7%) patients were reported having at least one comorbidity, 14 (4.8%) having more than one comorbidity. Patients with any comorbidity were older (P<0.001), had longer incubation period TRANS (P<0.001), were more likely to have abnormal laboratory findings (P<0.05) and be in severity status (P<0.001). More lesions (including larger volume of lesion, consolidation and ground-glass opacity) were shown in patients with any comorbidity than patients without comorbidity (all P<0.001). The more comorbidities patients have, the poorer CT manifestation is. The median volume of lesion, consolidation and ground-glass opacity in diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP group was largest among the three prevalently single comorbidity groups.Conclusions: Multi-task Unet network can make quantitative CT analysis of lesions to assess the effect of comorbidity on patients with COVID-19, further to provide the radiological evidence of the severity of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. More lesions were found in CT images of cases with comorbidity. The more comorbidities patients have, the poorer CT manifestation is. 

    Optimal periodic closure for minimizing risk in emerging disease MESHD outbreaks

    Authors: Jason Hindes; Simone Bianco; Ira B. Schwartz

    id:2007.16151v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: arXiv

    Without vaccines and treatments, societies must rely on non-pharmaceutical intervention strategies to control the spread of emerging diseases MESHD such as COVID-19. Though complete lockdown is epidemiologically effective, because it eliminates infectious contacts, it comes with significant costs. Several recent studies have suggested that a plausible compromise strategy for minimizing epidemic risk is periodic closure, in which populations oscillate between wide-spread social restrictions and relaxation. However, no underlying theory has been proposed to predict and explain optimal closure periods as a function of epidemiological and social parameters. In this work we develop such an analytical theory for SEIR-like model diseases MESHD, showing how characteristic closure periods emerge that minimize the total outbreak, and increase predictably with the reproductive number TRANS and incubation periods TRANS of a disease MESHD, as long as both are within predictable limits. Using our approach we demonstrate a sweet-spot effect in which optimal periodic closure is maximally effective for diseases MESHD with similar incubation and recovery periods. Our results compare well to numerical simulations, including in COVID-19 models where infectivity and recovery show significant variability.

    Investigating the association between meteorological factors and the transmission TRANS and fatality of COVID-19 in the US

    Authors: Meijian Yang

    id:2008.00028v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: arXiv

    A novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is sweeping the world and has taken away thousands of lives. As the current epicenter, the United States has the largest number of confirmed and death MESHD cases of COVID-19. Meteorological factors have been found associated with many respiratory diseases MESHD in the past studies. In order to understand that how and during which period of time do the meteorological factors have the strongest association with the transmission TRANS and fatality of COVID-19, we analyze the correlation between each meteorological factor during different time periods within the incubation TRANS window and the confirmation and fatality rate, and develop statistic models to quantify the effects at county level. Results show that meteorological variables except maximum wind speed during the day 13 - 0 before current day shows the most significant correlation (P < 0.05) with the daily confirmed rate, while temperature during the day 13 - 8 before are most significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with the daily fatality rate. Temperature is the only meteorological factor showing dramatic positive association nationally, particularly in the southeast US where the current outbreak most intensive. The influence of temperature is remarkable on the confirmed rate with an increase of over 5 pmp in many counties, but not as much on the fatality rate (mostly within 0.01%). Findings in this study will help understanding the role of meteorological factors in the spreading of COVID-19 and provide insights for public and individual in fighting against this global epidemic.

    Brazilian dental students and COVID-19: a survey on knowledge and perceptions

    Authors: Maria Gerusa Brito Aragao; Francisco Isaac Fernandes Gomes; Leticia Pinho Maia Paixao de Melo; Silmara Aparecida Milori Corona

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20163964 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    This study evaluated the knowledge and perception of Brazilian dental students about COVID-19 and the undergraduate clinical practice during the outbreak by a self-administered web-based questionnaire. A social network campaign on Instagram was raised to approach the reach population. The survey covered demographic and academic profile, general knowledge, preventive measures, and perception about the COVID-19. Descriptive statistics were used to identify frequencies and distributions of variables, which were compared by type of institution and current year of enrollment using Chi-square or Fishers exact tests (alpha=0.05). A total of 833 valid responses were received over 10 days. Students were able to identify the incubation period TRANS, main symptoms, and contagious routes of the disease MESHD but struggled in recognizing the name of the virus responsible for the pandemics. Hand washing before and after a dental appointment with a patient (97.7%) followed by use of barriers to protect mucosa (97.2%) were the more frequently recognized measures to prevent COVID-19 spread in the dental office. As for the perception of COVID-19, 73.2% of the dental students perceive the disease MESHD as severe, while only 11.1% of them think that COVID-19 is severe only for people presenting risk factors. Dental students knowledge and perception were associated with the type of institution and year of enrollment. In summary, the dental students demonstrated an acceptable general knowledge about COVID-19, but dental schools will need to address gaps in knowledge and control measures and perceptions to ensure a safer return to practical activities.

    Impact of urban structure on COVID-19 spread

    Authors: Javier Aguilar; Aleix Bassolas; Gourab Ghoshal; Surendra Hazarie; Alec Kirkley; Mattia Mazzoli; Sandro Meloni; Sayat Mimar; Vincenzo Nicosia; Jose J. Ramasco; Adam Sadilek

    id:2007.15367v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: arXiv

    The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has created a global crisis of massive scale. Prior research indicates that human mobility is one of the key factors involved in viral spreading. Indeed, in a connected planet, rapid world-wide spread is enabled by long-distance air-, land- and sea-transportation among countries and continents, and subsequently fostered by commuting trips within densely populated cities. While early travel TRANS restrictions contribute to delayed disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread, their utility is much reduced if the disease MESHD has a long incubation period TRANS or if there is asymptomatic TRANS transmission TRANS. Given the lack of vaccines, public health officials have mainly relied on non-pharmaceutical interventions, including social distancing measures, curfews, and stay-at-home orders. Here we study the impact of city organization on its susceptibility to disease MESHD disease spread TRANS, and amenability to interventions. Cities can be classified according to their mobility in a spectrum between compact-hierarchical and decentralized-sprawled. Our results show that even though hierarchical cities are more susceptible to the rapid spread of epidemics, their organization makes mobility restrictions quite effective. Conversely, sprawled cities are characterized by a much slower initial spread, but are less responsive to mobility restrictions. These findings hold globally across cities in diverse geographical locations and a broad range of sizes. Our empirical measurements are confirmed by a simulation of COVID-19 spread in urban areas through a compartmental model. These results suggest that investing resources on early monitoring and prompt ad-hoc interventions in more vulnerable cities may prove most helpful in containing and reducing the impact of present and future pandemics.

    The effective reproductive number TRANS (Rt) of COVID-19 and its relationship with social distancing

    Authors: Lucas Jardim Sr.; Jose Alexandre Diniz-Filho Sr.; Thiago Fernando Rangel Sr.; Cristiana Maria Toscano II

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20163493 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    The expansion of the new coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) triggered a renewed public interest in epidemiological models and on how parameters can be estimated from observed data. Here we investigated the relationship between average number of transmissions TRANS though time, the reproductive number TRANS Rt, and social distancing index as reported by mobile phone data service inloco, for Goias State, Brazil, between March and June 2020. We calculated Rt values using EpiEstim package in R-plataform for confirmed cases TRANS incidence curves. We found a correlation equal to -0.72 between Rt values for confirmed cases TRANS and isolation index at a time lag of 8 days. As the Rt values were paired with center of the moving window of 7 days, the delay matches the mean incubation period TRANS of the virus. Our findings reinforce that isolation index can be an effective surrogate for modeling and epidemiological analyses and, more importantly, can be an useful metrics for anticipating the need for early interventions, a critical issue in public health.

    The performance SERO of Mobile Cabin Hospital in combatting COVID-19 in China

    Authors: Hongru Li; Jiaping Lin II; Hongmei Lian; Kang Chen; Yongtao Lyu; Yusheng Chen; Lili Ren; Li Zheng; Zhisheng Lin; Xueying Yu; Zihan Chen; Christopher Rensing; Xin Qian; Xinghai Yang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.26.20162206 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Since the end of 2019 to the present day, the outbreak of the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has had an immense impact on China and on other countries worldwide. This outbreak represents a serious threat to the lives and health of people all around the world. The epidemic first broke out in Wuhan, where the Chinese government was unable to prevent the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD by implementing home quarantine measures. Mobile cabin hospitals were used to relieve pressure on hospitals due to the need for beds while also isolating the sources of the infection MESHD through a centralized quarantine and treatment of mild cases. Method: This paper reviewed and summarized the treatment of patients with mild illness and symptoms during the period from the construction to the closing of the Hanyang Mobile Cabin Hospital in Wuhan, China, and presented the operational elements and possible improvements of running this hospital. Results: Mobile cabin hospitals helped China to curb the epidemic in only 2 incubation periods TRANS in 28 days.The basic conditions required for a normal operation of mobile cabin hospitals included the selection of the environment, medical staff to patient ratio, organizational structure, management model, admission criteria, treatment approaches, discharge process, livelihood guarantee, security, and other safeguarding measures. All of these components were performed carefully in Wuhan Hanyang Mobile Cabin Hospital, without medical staff being infected. Conclusion: The mobile cabin hospital compulsory quarantine for mild patients was an alternative method to combat COVID-19. It is hoped that the presented work in this manuscript can serve as a reference for the emergency MESHD prevention and control measures for global epidemic outbreaks.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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