Importance: Protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) from COVID-19 is a priority to maintain a safe and functioning healthcare system. The risk of transmitting COVID-19 to family members TRANS is a source of stress for many. Objective: To describe and compare HCW and non-HCW COVID-19 cases in Ontario, Canada, as well as the frequency of COVID-19 among HCWs household members. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using reportable disease MESHD data at Public Health Ontario which captures all COVID-19 cases in Ontario, Canada, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study comparing demographic, exposure, and clinical variables between HCWs and non-HCWs with COVID-19 as of 14 May 2020. We calculated rates of infections MESHD over time and determined the frequency of within household transmissions TRANS using natural language processing based on residential address. Exposures and Outcomes: We contrasted age TRANS, gender TRANS, comorbidities, clinical presentation (including asymptomatic TRANS and presymptomatic), exposure histories including nosocomial transmission TRANS, and clinical outcomes between HCWs and non-HCWs with confirmed COVID-19. Results: There were 4,230 (17.5%) HCW COVID-19 cases in Ontario, of whom 20.2% were nurses, 2.3% were physicians, and the remaining 77.4% other specialties. HCWs were more likely to be between 30-60 years of age TRANS and female TRANS. HCWs were more likely to present asymptomatically TRANS (8.1% versus 7.0%, p=0.010) or with atypical symptoms (17.8% versus 10.5%, p<0.001). The mortality among HCWs was 0.2% compared to 10.5% of non-HCWs. HCWs commonly had exposures to a confirmed case TRANS or outbreak (74.1%), however only 3.1% were confirmed to be nosocomial. The rate of new infections MESHD was 5.5 times higher in HCWs than non-HCWs, but mirrored the epidemic curve. We identified 391 (9.8%) probable secondary household transmissions TRANS and 143 (3.6%) acquisitions. Children TRANS <19 years comprised 14.6% of secondary cases TRANS compared to only 4.2% of the primary cases TRANS. Conclusions and Relevance: HCWs represent a disproportionate number of COVID-19 cases in Ontario but with low confirmed numbers of nosocomial transmission TRANS. The data support substantial testing bias and under-ascertainment of general population cases. Protecting HCWs through appropriate personal protective equipment and physical distancing from colleagues is paramount.