Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (13)

Anxiety (11)

Fever (10)

Cough (9)

Hypertension (8)


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 208
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    Transient dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 as England exited national lockdown

    Authors: Steven Riley; Kylie E. C. Ainslie; Oliver Eales; Caroline E Walters; Haowei Wang; Christina J Atchison; Peter Diggle; Deborah Ashby; Christl A. Donnelly; Graham Cooke; Wendy Barclay; Helen Ward; Ara Darzi; Paul Elliott

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20169078 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Control of the COVID-19 pandemic requires a detailed understanding of prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the population. Case-based surveillance is necessarily biased towards symptomatic individuals and sensitive to varying patterns of reporting in space and time. The real-time assessment of community transmission TRANS antigen study (REACT-1) is designed to overcome these limitations by obtaining prevalence SERO data based on a nose and throat swab RT-PCR test among a representative community-based sample in England, including asymptomatic TRANS individuals. Here, we describe results comparing rounds 1 and 2 carried out during May and mid June / early July 2020 respectively across 315 lower tier local authority areas. In round 1 we found 159 positive samples from 120,620 tested swabs while round 2 there were 123 positive samples from 159,199 tested swabs, indicating a downwards trend in prevalence SERO from 0.13% (95% CI, 0.11%, 0.15%) to 0.077% (0.065%, 0.092%), a halving time of 38 (28, 58) days, and an R of 0.89 (0.86, 0.93). The proportion of swab-positive participants who were asymptomatic TRANS at the time of sampling increased from 69% (61%, 76%) in round 1 to 81% (73%, 87%) in round 2. Although health care and care home workers were infected far more frequently than other workers in round 1, the odds were markedly reduced in round 2. Age TRANS patterns of infection MESHD changed between rounds, with a reduction by a factor of five in prevalence SERO in 18 to 24 year olds. Our data were suggestive of increased risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD in Black and Asian (mainly South Asian) ethnicities. Using regional and detailed case location data, we detected increased infection MESHD intensity in and near London. Under multiple sensitivity SERO analyses, our results were robust to the possibility of false positives. At the end of the initial lockdown in England, we found continued decline in prevalence SERO and a shift in the pattern of infection MESHD by age TRANS and occupation. Community-based sampling, including asymptomatic TRANS individuals, is necessary to fully understand the nature of ongoing transmission TRANS.

    Modelling epidemic dynamics under collective decision making

    Authors: Mengbin Ye; Lorenzo Zino; Alessandro Rizzo; Ming Cao

    id:2008.01971v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: arXiv

    During the course of an epidemic, individuals constantly make decisions on how to fight against epidemic spreading. Collectively, these individual decisions are critical to the global outcome of the epidemic, especially when no pharmaceutical interventions are available. However, existing epidemic models lack the ability to capture this complex decision-making process, which is shaped by an interplay of factors including government-mandated policy interventions, expected socio-economic costs, perceived infection MESHD infection risks TRANS infection risks TRANS risks and social influences. Here, we introduce a novel parsimonious model, grounded in evolutionary game theory, able to capture decision-making dynamics over heterogeneous time scales. Using real data, we analyse three case studies in the spreading of gonorrhoea, the 1918--19 Spanish flu and COVID-19. Behavioural factors shaping the course of the epidemic are intelligibly mapped onto a minimal set of model parameters, and their interplay gives rise to characteristic phenomena, such as sustained periodic outbreaks, multiple epidemic waves, or a successful eradication of the disease MESHD. Our model enables a direct assessment of the epidemiological and socio-economic impact of different policy interventions implemented to combat epidemic outbreaks. Besides the common-sense finding that stringent non-pharmaceutical interventions are essential to taming the initial phases of the outbreak, the duration of such interventions and the way they are phased out are key for an eradication in the medium-to-long term. Surprisingly, our findings reveal that social influence is a double-edged sword in the control of epidemics, helping strengthen collective adoption of self-protective behaviours during the early stages of the epidemic, but then accelerating their rejection upon lifting of non-pharmaceutical containment interventions.

    Exposure Density and Neighborhood Disparities in COVID-19 Infection MESHD Infection Risk TRANS Infection Risk TRANS Risk: Using Large-scale Geolocation Data to Understand Burdens on Vulnerable Communities

    Authors: Boyeong Hong; Bartosz Bonczak; Arpit Gupta; Lorna Thorpe; Constantine E. Kontokosta

    id:2008.01650v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: arXiv

    This study develops a new method to quantify neighborhood activity levels at high spatial and temporal resolutions and test whether, and to what extent, behavioral responses to social distancing policies vary with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We define exposure density as a measure of both the localized volume of activity in a defined area and the proportion of activity occurring in non-residential and outdoor land uses. We utilize this approach to capture inflows/outflows of people as a result of the pandemic and changes in mobility behavior for those that remain. First, we develop a generalizable method for assessing neighborhood activity levels by land use type using smartphone geolocation data over a three-month period covering more than 12 million unique users within the Greater New York area. Second, we measure and analyze disparities in community social distancing by identifying patterns in neighborhood activity levels and characteristics before and after the stay-at-home order. Finally, we evaluate the effect of social distancing in neighborhoods on COVID-19 infection MESHD rates and outcomes associated with localized demographic, socioeconomic, and infrastructure characteristics in order to identify disparities in health outcomes related to exposure risk. Our findings provide insight into the timely evaluation of the effectiveness of social distancing for individual neighborhoods and support a more equitable allocation of resources to support vulnerable and at-risk communities. Our findings demonstrate distinct patterns of activity pre- and post-COVID across neighborhoods. The variation in exposure density has a direct and measurable impact on the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD.

    Application of Social Vulnerability Index to Identify High- risk Population of Contracting COVID-19 Infection MESHD: a state-level study.

    Authors: Odalys Estefania Lara Garcia; Violeta Alvarez Retamales; Oswaldo A Madrid Suarez; Priyanka Parajuli; Susan Hingle; Robert Robinson

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20166983 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Social factors that determine the health of a population are known as the social determinants of health. During the past few weeks, as COVID-19 cases grew exponentially, the discrepancy among the number of cases distribution was evident.By applying the social vulnerability index and analyzing data from a total of 102 counties across the state of Illinois, we investigated which factors enhanced the risk of contracting the infection MESHD and which were related to a lower risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD. Our results showed that social factors such as belonging to a minority group, speaking English less than well, living in a multi-unit structure, and households with individuals of age group TRANS of 17 or younger were associated with a higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD. On the other hand, we found that factors such as living in a mobile home, individuals of age group TRANS 65 or older, low income per capita and, older than age TRANS 5 with disability were protective. We propose that communities with disproportionate health burdens can be identified by the application of these factors. Future efforts need to focus on decreasing the gap of disparity by modifying these social factors.

    A multi-centre prospective study of COVID-19 transmission TRANS following outpatient Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in the United Kingdom

    Authors: Bu'Hussain Hayee; - The SCOTS project group; James E East; Colin R Rees; Ian Penman

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166736 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Message The COVID-19 pandemic has severely curtailed the practice of endoscopy (as an exemplar for outpatient diagnostic procedures) worldwide. Restart and recovery processes will be influenced by the need to protect patients and staff from disease MESHD transmission TRANS, but data on the risk of COVID-19 transmission TRANS after endoscopy are sparse. This is of particular importance in later pandemic phases when the risk of harm from delayed or missed significant diagnoses is likely to far outweigh the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD. The British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) guidance for restarting endoscopy included stratification of diagnostic procedures according to aerosol generation or assessment of infectious risk as well as pragmatic guidance on the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). We sought to document the risk of COVID-19 transmission TRANS after endoscopy in this 'COVID-minimised' environment. Prospective data were collected from 18 UK centres for n=6208 procedures, with follow-up telephone assessment of patients at 7 and 14 days. No cases of COVID-19 were documented by any centre after endoscopy in either patients or staff, with 3/2611 (0.11%) asymptomatic TRANS patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 on nasopharyngeal swab testing pre-endoscopy. While these data cannot determine the relative contribution of each component of a COVID-minimised pathway, they provide clear support for such an approach, are reassuring and should aid planning for outpatient diagnostics in the COVID-19 recovery phase.

    Impact of Corticosteroids and Immunosuppressive Therapies on Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD in a Large Cohort of Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Arthritis MESHD Arthritis HP

    Authors: Ennio Giulio Favalli; Serena Bugatti; Catherine Klersy; Martina Biggioggero; Silvia Rossi; Orazio De Lucia; Francesca Bobbio-Pallavicini; Antonella Murgo; Silvia Balduzzi; Roberto Caporali; Carlomaurizio Montecucco

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Prevalence SERO and outcomes of Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID)-19 in relation to immunomodulatory medications are still unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents on COVID-19 in a large cohort of patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis MESHD arthritis HP.Methods: The study was conducted in the arthritis MESHD arthritis HP outpatient clinic at two large Academic Hospitals in the COVID-19 most endemic area of Northern Italy (Lombardy). We circulated a cross-sectional survey exploring the prevalence SERO of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD-Coronavirus-2 nasopharyngeal swab positivity and the occurrence of acute respiratory illness ( fever MESHD fever HP and/or cough MESHD cough HP and/or dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP), administered face-to-face or by phone to consecutive patients from 25th February to 20th April 2020. COVID-19 cases were defined as confirmed or highly suspicious according to the World Health Organization criteria. The impact of medications on COVID-19 incidence was evaluated. Results: The study population included 2050 adults TRANS with chronic inflammatory arthritis MESHD arthritis HP receiving glucocorticoids, conventional-synthetic (cs), or targeted-synthetic/biological (ts/b) disease MESHD-modifying drugs (DMARDs). Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and highly suspicious infection MESHD were recorded in 1.1% and 1.4% of the population, respectively. Treatment with glucocorticoids was independently associated with increased risk of COVID-19 (adjusted OR [95% CI] ranging from 1.23 [1.04-1.44] to 3.20 [1.97-5.18] depending on the definition used). Conversely, patients treated with ts/bDMARDs were at reduced risk (adjusted OR ranging from 0.46 [0.18-1.21] to 0.47 [0.46-0.48]). No independent effects of csDMARDs were observed.Conclusions: During the COVID-19 outbreak, treatment with immunomodulatory medications appears safe. Conversely, glucocorticoids, even at low-dose, may confer increased risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD.Trial registration:  retrospectively registered

    Preparedness for COVID-19 by Primary Healthcare Workers in Rivers State, Nigeria: Facility Cross-sectional Survey 

    Authors: Dr. Clement Kevin Edet ; Dr. Anthony Ike Wegbom; Prof. Victor Alangibi Kiri

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction: The primary healthcare workers (PHCWs) face a higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD associated with their occupation, due to inadequate supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE), inappropriate use of PPEs, and insufficient knowledge on infection MESHD prevention and control. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the preparedness for COVID-19 by PHCWs in Rivers State, Nigeria. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving the healthcare workers at the public primary healthcare facilities across the 23 local government areas (LGAs) of Rivers State, Nigeria. The descriptive statistics of mean ± standard deviation and percentage were used to present quantitative and categorical variables respectively. The preparedness for COVID-19 was measured by knowledge, attitude and preventive practices (KAP) towards the disease MESHD. The association between the KAP and demographic characteristics was tested with the Chi-square test, while the associations existing among the KAP constituents were evaluated with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Statistical significance was evaluated at P<0.05. Results: Out of 460 questionnaires distributed, 412 respondents participated in the survey, indicating a response rate of 89.6%. The proportion of respondents with good scores in knowledge, attitude, and COVID-19 related practices was 86.4% (10.66 ± 2.40), 85.0% (8.28 ± 1.94), and 97.3% (8.34 ± 1.39) respectively. Gender TRANS, occupation, and years of experience were associated with knowledge, while years of experience and marital status were associated with attitude and preventive practices. Knowledge score also had significant positive linear associations with both attitudes  and practices (  scores toward COVID-19. Conclusion: Our findings revealed the level of PHCWs preparedness to fight COVID-19 in Rivers State. We suggest that public health education programs on infection MESHD prevention and control should be sustained.  Furthermore, training should be tailored to meet the peculiarities of the different categories of healthcare workers and years of practice. 

    Determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Italian healthcare workers: a multicenter study

    Authors: Paolo Boffetta; Francesco Violante; Paolo Durando; Giuseppe De Palma; Enrico Pira; Luigi Vimercati; Alfonso Cristaudo; Giancarlo Icardi; Emma Sala; Maurizio Coggiola; Silvio Tafuri; Vittorio Gattini; Pietro Apostoli; Giovanna Spatari; - Working Group on SARS-CoV-2 infection in Italian healthcare workers

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20158717 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Healthcare workers (HCW) are at increased risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, yet limited information is available on risk factors of infection MESHD. Methods. We pooled data on occupational surveillance of 10,654 HCW who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in six Italian centers. Information was available on demographics, job title, department of employment, source of exposure, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and COVID-19-related symptoms. We fitted multivariable logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Findings. The prevalence SERO of infection MESHD varied across centers and ranged from 3.0% to 22.0%, being strongly correlated with that of the respective areas. Women were at lower risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD compared to men. Fever MESHD Fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP and malaise were the symptoms most strongly associated with infection MESHD, together with anosmia HP and ageusia MESHD. No differences in the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD were detected between job titles, or working in a COVID-19 designated department. Reported contact with a patient inside or outside the workplace was a risk factor. Use of a mask was strongly protective against risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD as was use of gloves. The use of a mask by the source of exposure (patient or colleague) had an independent effect in reducing infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk.

    Stochastic modelling of the effects of human-mobility restriction and viral infection MESHD characteristics on the spread of COVID-19

    Authors: Shiho Ando; Yuki Matsuzawa; Hiromichi Tsurui; Tetsuya Mizutani; Damien Hall; Yutaka Kuroda

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20163980 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    After several weeks of "lockdown" as the sole answer to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries are restarting their economic and social activities. However, balancing the re-opening of society against the implementation of non-pharmaceutical measures needed for minimizing interpersonal contacts requires a careful assessment of the risks of infection TRANS risks of infection TRANS infection MESHD as a function of the confinement relaxation strategies. Here, we present a stochastic coarse grained model that examines this problem. In our model, people are allowed to move between discrete positions on a one-dimensional grid with viral infection MESHD possible when two people are collocated at the same site. Our model features three sets of adjustable parameters, which characterize (i) viral transmission TRANS, (ii) viral detection, and (iii) degree of personal mobility, and as such, it is able to provide a qualitative assessment of the potential for second-wave infection MESHD outbreaks based on the timing, extent, and pattern of the lockdown relaxation strategy. In line with general expectations, our model predicts that a full lockdown yields the best results, namely, the lowest number of total infections MESHD. A less anticipated result was that when personal mobility is increased beyond a critical level, the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD rapidly reaches a constant value, which depends solely on the population density. Furthermore, according to our model, confinement alone is not effective if it is not accompanied by a detection capacity (coupled with quarantine) that surpasses 40% of the patients during their symptomatic phase. The results of our simulation also showed that keeping the virus transmission TRANS probability to less than 0.4, which can be achieved in real life by respecting social distancing or wearing masks, is as effective as imposing a mild lockdown. Finally, we note that detection and quarantine of pre-symptomatic patients, even with a probability as low as 0.2, would reduce the final numbers of infections MESHD by a factor of ten or more.

    Patient’s perspective regarding the elective surgical procedure during Covid 19 pandemic.

    Authors: Dr. Mayank Badkur; Dr Ashok Puranik; Dr Naveen Sharma ; Dr. Suruthi Baskaran

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction: The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and the subsequent nationwide lockdown, has impacted all aspects of society including medical profession. In hospitals, the focus has mainly shifted to prevention and treatment of Covid-19 infection MESHD. Owing to this, all elective surgeries were postponed and only emergent surgeries were performed. This has affected the patients differently depending on the progression of disease MESHD and development of complications.Materials and Methods: A well-structured telephonic scripted questionnaire was administered to all patients who were given appointment for any elective surgery. Data was collected regarding the status of disease MESHD including complications and the patient’s perspective on method of treatment. Patients who developed complications or underwent emergency MESHD surgery or surgery elsewhere were excluded.Results: The male TRANS to female TRANS ratio was 2.3:1. Mean age TRANS of patients was 41.16 years. A total of 86 patients were included in the study. Almost all (98.8%) were aware that the lockdown and withholding of elective surgeries was to prevent spread of coronavirus infection MESHD. Among 34 patients with complications, 88.2% were willing to undergo surgical procedure and 73.5% were willing to visit hospital within a week or two. Among patients without complications, 71.2% were willing to continue treatment on wait and watch policy, for a period of 2 months or more (45.7%). 93.5% of patients avoided visit to hospital due to risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD.Discussion: Patient’s attitude towards the choice of treatment (wait and watch Vs surgery) mainly depended on the progression of disease MESHD. It is critical, during these tough times of Covid-19 pandemic, that risks are weighed against benefits to decide the line of management for patients waiting for elective surgeries. 

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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