Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Clinical Characteristics of 538 Novel Coronavirus Disease MESHD Patients with Chronic Underlying Diseases MESHD in Wuhan, China: A retrospective Study

    Authors: Wanwan Yi; Xiaqing Yu; Hengwei Fan; Hengmei Zhu; Zhongwei Lv; Xiaohui Fu; Qian Zhang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30703/v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 causes the novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) in humans, which has spread rapidly worldwide. Most critical cases of COVID-19 are accompanied by complicated chronic underlying diseases MESHD. This retrospective study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with chronic underlying diseases MESHD.Methods A total of 1,183 COVID-19 patients were divided into the chronic underlying disease MESHD (CUD, n = 538) group and the non-underlying disease MESHD (non-CUD, n = 645) group. The clinical characteristics and outcomes were collected and compared between the two groups.Results There were significant differences in age TRANS, weight, and SPO2 on admission between the CUD and non-CUP groups. The ratio of severe cases in the CUD group was higher than that in the non-CUD group (χ2 = 35.58, p-value < 0.001). The white blood SERO cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine, myoglobin, and cardiac troponin in the CUD group were significantly higher than those in the non-CUD group, while the lymphocyte count and albumin in the underlying disease MESHD group were significantly lower than those in the non-underlying disease MESHD group. No significant difference was found in the total number of tests, the number of positive or negative results in nucleic acid tests between the two groups. The negative rate for both IgG- and IgM-antibody tests SERO in the CUD group was higher than that in the non-CUD group (χ2 = 5.57, p-value = 0.018). No statistical difference in mortality between the CUD (n = 18) and non-CUD groups (n = 13). All surviving patients were cured and discharged. A total of 33 patients had a positive re-examination result for nucleic acid test one week after discharge, including 14 patients with underlying diseases MESHD and 19 patients without underlying diseases MESHD. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients with underlying diseases MESHD had poorer clinical conditions and had a longer hospital stay, but after active treatment, the mortality had not increased significantly.

    Clinical And Analytical Performance SERO Of An Automated Serological Test SERO That Identifies S1/S2 Neutralizing IgG In Covid-19 Patients Semiquantitatively.

    Authors: Fabrizio Bonelli; Antonella Sarasini; Claudia Zierold; Mariella Calleri; Alice Bonetti; Frank A Blocki; Luca Pallavicini; Alberto Chinali; Daniela Campisi; Elena Percivalle; Anna Pia DiNapoli; Carlo Federico Perno; Fausto Balldanti

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.105445 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: bioRxiv

    BACKGROUNDIn the Covid-19 pandemic, highly selective serological testing SERO is essential to define exposure to SARS-CoV-2 virus. Many tests have been developed, yet with variable speed to first result, and of unknown quality, particularly when considering the prediction of neutralizing capacity. OBJECTIVES/METHODSThe LIAISON(R) SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay was designed to measure antibodies SERO against the SARS-CoV-2 native S1/S2 proteins in a standardized automated chemiluminescent assay. Clinical and analytical performance SERO of the test were validated in an observational study using residual samples (>1500) with positive or negative Covid-19 diagnosis. RESULTSThe LIAISON(R) SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay proved highly selective and specific, and offers semiquantitative measures of serum SERO or plasma SERO levels of anti-S1/S2 IgG with neutralizing activity. The diagnostic sensitivity SERO was 91.3% and 95.7% at >5 or [≥]15 days from diagnosis respectively, and 100% when assessed against a neutralizing assay. The specificity ranged between 97% and 98.5%. The average imprecision of the assay was <5 % coefficient of variation. Assay performance SERO at 2 different cut-offs was evaluated to optimize predictive values in settings with different % disease MESHD prevalence SERO. CONCLUSIONS. The automated LIAISON(R) SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay brings efficient, sensitive, specific, and precise serological testing SERO to the laboratory, with the capacity to test large amounts of samples per day: first results are available within 35 minutes with a throughput of 170 tests/hour. The test also provides a semiquantitative measure to identify samples with neutralizing antibodies SERO, useful also for a large scale screening of convalescent plasma SERO for safe therapeutic use. IMPORTANCEWith the worldwide advance of the COVID-19 pandemic, efficient, reliable and accessible diagnostic tools are needed to support public health officials and healthcare providers in their efforts to deliver optimal medical care, and articulate sound demographic policy. DiaSorin has developed an automated serology based assay for the measurement of IgG specific to SARS CoV-2 Spike protein, and tested its clinical performance SERO in collaboration with Italian health care professionals who provided access to large numbers of samples from infected and non-infected individuals. The assay delivers excellent sensitivity SERO and specificity, and is able to identify samples with high levels of neutralizing antibodies SERO. This will provide guidance in assessing the true immune status of subjects, as well as meeting the pressing need to screen donors for high titer convalescent sera for subsequent therapeutic and prophylactic use.

    Serological prevalence SERO of antibodies to SARS CoV-2 SERO amongst cancer centre staff

    Authors: Karol Sikora; Ian Barwick; Ceri Hamilton

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.16.20099408 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: the aim of this study was to test Rutherford Health (RH) staff for the presence of SARS CoV-2 antibodies SERO to reduce the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD to cancer patients. Setting: Between 14 and 24 April 2020 we tested 161 staff at four locations: our cancer centres in Reading - Berkshire, Newport - S Wales, Liverpool - Merseyside, and Bedlington in Northumberland. Participants: Testing was available to all staff who were on site at the four locations named above at the time the study was carried out. 161 staff (80 men, 81 women) gave voluntary consent to have the tests and all testing gave rise to valid results. Interventions: We used the South Korean test for antibodies SERO to SARS CoV-2: Sugentech SGTi-flex COVID-19 IgM/IgG1. For each test, blood SERO was collected and added to the sample well of the test cassette SERO and buffer solution added. The test result was legible after 15 minutes. Outcome measures: The number of tests positive for the presence of antibodies SERO was the primary outcome measure. The ratio of tests positive for the presence of IgM antibodies SERO versus IgG antibodies SERO was the secondary outcome measure. Results: Between 14 and 24 April 2020, 161 staff ( age TRANS m = 43) were tested at four Rutherford Cancer Care centres that offer proton beam therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Out of 161, 12 samples (7.50%) tested positive of which 7 samples (4.35%) detected IgM only, 2 samples (1.24%) detected IgG only and 3 samples (1.86%) detected both IgM and IgG. Conclusions: The low seroconversion rate in the sample population limits the current utility of the test as a way of reducing risk to vulnerable patient populations but longitudinal retesting will provide further data.

    COVID-19 in England: spatial patterns and regional outbreaks

    Authors: Claudio Fronterre; Jonathan M Read; Barry Rowlingson; Jessica Bridgen; Simon Alderton; Peter J Diggle; Chris P Jewell

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.20102715 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    Aims: to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of COVID-19 cases in England; to provide spatial quantification of risk at a high resolution; to provide information for prospective antigen and serological testing SERO. Approach: We fit a spatiotemporal Negative Binomial generalised linear model to Public Health England SARS-CoV-2 testing data at the Lower Tier Local Authority region level. We assume an order-1 autoregressive model for case progression within regions, coupling discrete spatial units via observed commuting data and time-varying measures of traffic flow. We fit the model via maximum likelihood estimation in order to calculate region-specific risk of ongoing transmission TRANS, as well as measuring regional uncertainty in incidence. Results: We detect marked heterogeneity across England in COVID-19 incidence, not only in raw estimated incidence, but in the characteristics of within-region and between-region dynamics of PHE testing data. There is evidence for a spatially diverse set of regions having a higher daily increase of cases than others, having accounted for current case numbers, population size, and human mobility. Uncertainty in model estimates is generally greater in rural regions. Conclusions: A wide range of spatial heterogeneity in COVID-19 epidemic distribution and infection MESHD rate exists in England currently. Future work should incorporate fine-scaled demographic and health covariates, with continued improvement in spatially-detailed case reporting data. The method described here may be used to measure heterogeneity in real-time as behavioural and social interventions are relaxed, serving to identify "hotspots" of resurgent cases occurring in diverse areas of the country, and triggering locally-intensive surveillance and interventions as needed. Caveats: There is general concern over the ability of PHE testing data to capture the true prevalence SERO of infection MESHD within the population, though this approach is designed to provide measures of spatial prevalence SERO based on testing that can be used to guide further future testing effort. Now-casts of epidemic characteristics are presented based on testing data alone (as opposed to "true" prevalence SERO in any one area). The model used in this analysis is phenomenological for ease and speed of principled parameter inference; we choose the model which best fits the current spatial case timeseries, without attempting to enforce "SIR"-type epidemic dynamics.

    Extended Storage of SARS-CoV2 Nasopharyngeal Swabs Does Not Negatively Impact Results of Molecular-Based Testing

    Authors: Karin A Skalina; D. Yitzchak Goldstein; Jaffar Sulail; Eunkyu Hahm; Momka Narlieva; Wendy Szymczak; Amy S. Fox

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.16.20104158 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    With the global outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019, the demand for testing rapidly SERO increased and quickly exceeded the testing capacities for many laboratories. Clinical tests which receive CE and FDA authorizations cannot always be tested thoroughly in a real-world environment. Here we demonstrate the long-term stability of nasopharyngeal swab specimens for SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing across three assays recently approved by the U.S. FDA under Emergency MESHD Use Authorization. This study demonstrates that nasopharyngeal swab specimens can be stored under refrigeration or even ambient conditions for 21 days without clinically impacting the results of the real-time RT-PCR testing.

    SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in health care workers

    Authors: Adrian M Shields; Sian E Faustini; Marisol Perez-Toledo; Sian Jossi; Erin L Aldera; Joel D Allen; Saly Al-Taei; Claire Backhouse; Andrew Bosworth; Lyndsey Dunbar; Daniel Ebanks; Beena Emmanuel; Joanne Grey; I Michael Kidd; Golaeh McGinnell; Dee McLoughlin; Gabriella Morley; Danai Papakonstantinou; Oliver Pickles; Charlotte Poxon; Megan Richter; Eloise Walker; Kasun Wanigasooriya; Yasunori Watanabe; Celina Whalley; Agnieszka E Zielinska; Max Crispin; David C Wraith; Andrew D Beggs; Adam F Cunningham; Mark T Drayson; Alex G Richter

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105197 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: medRxiv

    Background The correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 and their longevity remain unclear. Studies in severely ill individuals have identified robust cellular and humoral immune responses against the virus. Asymptomatic infection MESHD Asymptomatic TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 has also been described, but it is unknown whether this is sufficient to produce antibody SERO responses. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study recruiting 554 health care workers from University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust who were at work and asymptomatic TRANS. Participants were tested for current infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal swab for real-time polymerase chain reaction and for seroconversion by the measurement of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein antibodies SERO by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO. Results were interpreted in the context of previous, self-reported symptoms of illness consistent with COVID-19. Results The point prevalence SERO of infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2, determined by the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on nasopharnygeal swab was 2.39% (n=13/544). Serum SERO was available on 516 participants. The overall rate of seroconversion in the cohort was 24.4% (n=126/516). Individuals who had previously experienced a symptomatic illness consistent with COVID-19 had significantly greater seroconversion rates than those who had remained asymptomatic TRANS (37.5% vs 17.1%, {chi}2 =21.1034, p<0.0001). In the week preceding peak COVID-19-related mortality at UHBFT, seroconversion rates amongst those who were suffering from symptomatic illnesses peaked at 77.8%. Prior symptomatic illness generated quantitatively higher antibody SERO responses than asymptomatic TRANS seroconversion. Seroconversion rates were highest amongst those working in housekeeping (34.5%), acute medicine (33.3%) and general internal medicine (30.3%) with lower rates observed in participants working in intensive care (14.8%) and emergency MESHD medicine (13.3%). Conclusions In a large cross-sectional seroprevalence SERO study of health-care workers, we demonstrate that asymptomatic TRANS seroconversion occurs, however prior symptomatic illness is associated with quantitatively higher antibody SERO responses. The identification that the potential for seroconversion in health-care workers can associate differentially with certain hospital departments may inform future infection MESHD control and occupational health practices.

    Experience of quantitative SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO screening of health-care workers in the southern part of Kyoto city during COVID-19 peri-pandemic period

    Authors: Kohei Fujita; Shinpei Kada; Osamu Kanai; Hiroaki Hata; Takao Odagaki; Noriko Satoh-Asahara; Tetsuya Tagami; Akihiro Yasoda

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.12.20098962 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with a heavy burden on the mental and physical health of patients, regional healthcare resources, and global economic activity. While our understanding of the incidence and case-fatality rates increases, data on seroprevalence SERO of antibodies SERO against the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in healthcare workers during the peri-pandemic period is insufficient. This study quantitatively evaluated seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO in healthcare workers in the southern part of Kyoto city, Japan. Methods: We prospectively recruited healthcare workers from a single hospital between April 10 and April 20, 2020. We collected serum samples SERO from these participants and quantitatively evaluated SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody SERO levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO. Results: Five (5.4%), 15 (16.3%), and 72 (78.3%) participants showed positive, borderline, and negative serum SERO SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody SERO status, respectively. We found the mean titer associated with each antibody SERO status (overall, positive, borderline, and negative) was clearly differentiated. Participants working at the otolaryngology department and/or having a history of seasonal common cold MESHD symptoms had a significantly higher titer of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody SERO (p=0.046, p=0.046, respectively). Conclusions: Five (5.4%) and 15 (16.3%) participants tested positive and borderline, respectively, for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody SERO during the COVID-19 peri-pandemic period. These rates were higher than expected based on government situation reports. The present findings suggest that COVID-19 was already spread in the southern part of Kyoto city at the early stage of pandemic.

    Human IgG cell neutralizing monoclonal antibodies SERO block SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Jinkai Wan; Shenghui Xing; Longfei Ding; Yongheng Wang; Dandan Zhu; Bowen Rong; Siqing Wang; Kun Chen; Chenxi He; Songhua Yuan; Chengli Qiu; Chen Zhao; Xiaoyan Zhang; Xiangxi Wang; Yanan Lu; Jianqing Xu; Fei Lan

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.104117 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: bioRxiv

    The coronavirus induced disease MESHD 19 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a worldwide threat to human lives, and neutralizing antibodies SERO present a great therapeutic potential in curing affected patients. We purified more than one thousand memory B cells specific to SARS-CoV-2 S1 or RBD (receptor binding domain) antigens from 11 convalescent COVID-19 patients, and a total of 729 naturally paired heavy and light chain fragments were obtained by single B cell cloning technology. Among these, 178 recombinant monoclonal antibodies were tested SERO positive for antigen binding, and the top 13 binders with Kd below 0.5 nM are all RBD binders. Importantly, all these 13 antibodies SERO could block pseudoviral entry into HEK293T cells overexpressing ACE2, with the best ones showing IC50s around 2-3 nM. We further identified 8 neutralizing antibodies SERO against authentic virus with IC50s within 10 nM. Among these, 414-1 blocked authentic viral entry at IC50 of 1.75 nM and in combination with 105-38 could achieve IC50 as low as 0.45 nM. Meanwhile, we also found that 3 antibodies SERO could cross-react with the SARS-CoV spike protein. Altogether, our study provided a panel of potent human neutralizing antibodies SERO for COVID19 as therapeutics candidates for further development.

    Analytical performance SERO of lateral flow immunoassay SERO for SARS-CoV-2 exposure screening on venous and capillary blood SERO samples

    Authors: Margaret A Black; Guomiao Shen; Xiaojun Feng; Wilfredo Garcia Beltran; Yang Feng; Varshini Vasudevaraja; Douglas Allison; Lawrence H. Lin; Tatyana Gindin; Michael Astudillo; Diane Yang; Mandakolathur Murali; A. John Iafrate; George Jour; Paolo Cotzia; Matija Snuderl

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.13.20098426 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: Numerous serologic immunoassays SERO have been launched to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO, including rapid tests SERO. Here, we validate use of a lateral flow immunoassay SERO (LFI) intended for rapid screening and qualitative detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG in serum SERO, plasma SERO, and whole blood SERO, and compare results with ELISA SERO. We also seek to establish the value of LFI testing on blood SERO obtained from a capillary blood SERO sample. Methods: Samples collected by venous blood SERO draw and capillary finger stick were obtained from patients with SARS-CoV-2 detected by RT-qPCR and control patients negative for SARS-CoV-2. Samples were tested with the 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM Detection Kit (Colloidal Gold) lateral flow immunoassay SERO, and antibody SERO calls were compared with results obtained by ELISA SERO. Results: The Biolidics LFI kit shows clinical sensitivity SERO of 92% at 7 days after PCR diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 on venous blood SERO. Test specificity was 92% for IgM and 100% for IgG. There was no significant difference in detecting IgM and IgG with Biolidics LFI and ELISA SERO at D0 and D7 (p=1.00), except for detection of IgM at D7 (p=0.04). Finger stick whole blood SERO of SARS-CoV-2 patients showed 93% sensitivity SERO for antibody SERO detection. Conclusions: Clinical performance SERO of Biolidics 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM Detection Kit (Colloidal Gold) is comparable to ELISA SERO and showed consistent results across different sample types. Furthermore, we show that capillary blood SERO obtained by finger stick shows similar sensitivity SERO for detecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies SERO as venous blood SERO samples. This provides an opportunity for decentralized rapid testing SERO in the community and may allow point-of-care and longitudinal self-testing for the presence of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO.

    Bounding the Predictive Values of COVID-19 Antibody Tests SERO

    Authors: Charles F. Manski

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20102061 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 antibody tests SERO have imperfect accuracy. There has been lack of clarity on the meaning of reported rates of false positives and false negatives. For risk assessment and clinical decision making, the rates of interest are the positive and negative predictive values SERO of a test. Positive predictive value SERO (PPV) is the chance that a person who tests positive has been infected. Negative predictive value SERO (NPV) is the chance that someone who tests negative has not been infected. The medical literature regularly reports different statistics, sensitivity SERO and specificity. Sensitivity SERO is the chance that an infected person receives a positive test result. Specificity is the chance that a non-infected person receives a negative result. Knowledge of sensitivity SERO and specificity permits one to predict the test result given a person's true infection MESHD status. These predictions are not directly relevant to risk assessment or clinical decisions, where one knows a test result and wants to predict whether a person has been infected. Given estimates of sensitivity SERO and specificity, PPV and NPV can be derived if one knows the prevalence SERO of the disease MESHD, the rate of illness in the population. There is considerable uncertainty about the prevalence SERO of COVID-19. This paper addresses the problem of inference on the PPV and NPV of COVID-19 antibody tests SERO given estimates of sensitivity SERO and specificity and credible bounds on prevalence SERO. I explain the methodological problem, show how to estimate bounds on PPV and NPV, and apply the findings to some tests authorized by the FDA.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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