Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


    displaying 21 - 30 records in total 413
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    Evaluating SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins as targets for IgG antibody SERO detection in severe and mild COVID-19 cases using a Luminex bead-based assay

    Authors: Joachim Marien; Johan Michiels; Leo Heyndrickx; Karen Kerkhof; Nikki Foque; Marc-Alain Widdowson; Isabelle Desombere; Hilde Jansens; Marjan Van Esbroeck; Kevin K. Arien

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.20161943 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Large-scale serosurveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) will only be possible if serological tests SERO are sufficiently reliable, rapid and inexpensive. Current assays are either labour-intensive and require specialised facilities (e.g. virus neutralization assays), or expensive with suboptimal specificity (e.g. commercial ELISAs SERO). Bead-based assays offer a cost-effective alternative and allow for multiplexing to test for antibodies SERO of other pathogens. Here, we compare the performance SERO of four antigens for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies SERO in a panel of sera that includes both severe (n=40) and mild (n=52) cases, using a neutralization and a Luminex bead-based assay. While we show that neutralising antibody SERO levels are significantly lower in mild than in severe cases, we demonstrate that a combination of recombinant nucleocapsid protein (NP), receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the whole spike protein (S1S2) results in a highly sensitive (96%) and specific (99%) bead-based assay that can detect IgG antibodies SERO in both groups. Although S1-specific IgG levels correlate most strongly with neutralizing antibody SERO levels, they fall HP below the detection threshold in 10% of the cases in our Luminex assay. In conclusion, our data supports the use of RBD, NP and S1S2 for the development of SARS-CoV-2 serological bead-based assays. Finally, we argue that low antibody SERO levels in mild/ asymptomatic TRANS cases might complicate the epidemiological assessment of large-scale surveillance studies.

    Antibody SERO Screening Results for Anti-Nucleocapsid Antibodies SERO Towards the Development of a SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein Antigen Detecting Lateral Flow Assay

    Authors: David Cate; Helen Hsieh; Veronika Glukhova; Joshua D Bishop; H Gleda Hermansky; Brianda Barrios-Lopez; Ben D Grant; Caitlin E Anderson; Ethan Spencer; Samantha Kuhn; Ryan Gallagher; Rafael Rivera; Crissa Bennett; Sam A Byrnes; John T Connelly; Puneet K Dewan; David S. Boyle; Bernhard H Weigl; Kevin P Nichols

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12709538.v1 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: ChemRxiv

    The global COVID-19 pandemic has created an urgent demand for accurate rapid point of care diagnostic tests. Antigen-based assays are suitably inexpensive and can be rapidly mass-produced, but sufficiently accurate performance SERO requires highly-optimized antibodies SERO and assay conditions. An automated liquid handling system, customized to handle lateral flow immunoassay SERO (LFA) arrays, was used for high-throughput antibody SERO screening of anti-nucleocapsid antibodies SERO that will perform optimally on an LFA. Six hundred seventy-three anti-nucleocapsid antibody SERO pairs were tested as both capture and detection reagents with the goal of finding those pairs that have the greatest affinity for unique epitopes of the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 while also performing optimally in an LFA format. In contrast to traditional antibody SERO screening methods (e.g. ELISA SERO, bio-layer interferometry), the methods described here integrate real-time LFA reaction kinetics and binding directly on nitrocellulose. We have identified several candidate antibody SERO pairs that are suitable for further development of an LFA for SARS-CoV-2.

    A High-throughput Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Testing Platform for COVID-19

    Authors: Jinwei Du; Eric Chu; Dayu Zhang; Chuanyi M Lu; Aiguo Zhang; Michael Y. Sha

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20160804 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Serology tests for detecting the antibodies SERO to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can identify previous infection MESHD and help to confirm the presence of current infection MESHD. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances SERO of a newly developed high throughput immunoassay SERO for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody SERO detection. Results: Clinical agreement studies were performed in 77 COVID-19 patient serum samples SERO and 226 negative donor serum SERO/ plasma SERO samples. Positive percent agreement (PPA) was 42.86% (95% CI: 9.90% to 81.59%), 55.56% (95% CI: 21.20% to 86.30%), and 96.72% (95% CI: 88.65% to 99.60%) for samples collected on 0-7 days, 8-14 days, and [≥]15 days from symptom onset TRANS, respectively. Negative Percent Agreement (NPA) was 98.23% (95% CI: 95.53% to 99.52%). No cross-reactivity was observed to patient samples positive for IgG antibodies SERO against the following pathogens: HIV, HAV, HBV, RSV, CMV, EBV, Rubella MESHD, Influenza A, and Influenza B. Hemoglobin (200 mg/dL), bilirubin (2 mg/dL) and EDTA (10 mM) showed no significant interfering effect on this assay. Conclusion: An anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody SERO assay with high sensitivity SERO and specificity has been developed. With the high throughput, this assay will speed up the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG testing.

    A Bayesian Hierarchical Network for Combining Heterogeneous Data Sources in Medical Diagnoses

    Authors: Claire Donnat; Nina Miolane; Frederick de St Pierre Bunbury; Jack Kreindler

    id:2007.13847v1 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: arXiv

    Computer-Aided Diagnosis has shown stellar performance SERO in providing accurate medical diagnoses across multiple testing modalities (medical images, electrophysiological signals, etc.). While this field has typically focused on fully harvesting the signal provided by a single (and generally extremely reliable) modality, fewer efforts have utilized imprecise data lacking reliable ground truth labels. In this unsupervised, noisy setting, the robustification and quantification of the diagnosis uncertainty become paramount, thus posing a new challenge: how can we combine multiple sources of information -- often themselves with vastly varying levels of precision and uncertainty -- to provide a diagnosis estimate with confidence bounds? Motivated by a concrete application in antibody testing SERO, we devise a Stochastic Expectation-Maximization algorithm that allows the principled integration of heterogeneous, and potentially unreliable, data types. Our Bayesian formalism is essential in (a) flexibly combining these heterogeneous data sources and their corresponding levels of uncertainty, (b) quantifying the degree of confidence associated with a given diagnostic, and (c) dealing with the missing values that typically plague MESHD medical data. We quantify the potential of this approach on simulated data, and showcase its practicality by deploying it on a real COVID-19 immunity study.

    Massive cerebral venous thrombosis HP venous thrombosis MESHD related to oligosymptomatic COVID-19 infection MESHD: a case report

    Authors: Simone Beretta; Fulvio Da Re; Valentina Francioni; Paolo Remida; Benedetta Storti; Lorenzo Fumagalli; Maria Luisa Piatti; Patrizia Santoro; Diletta Cereda; Claudia Cutellè; Fiammetta Pirro; Danilo Antonio Montisano; Francesca Beretta; Francesco Pasini; Annalisa Cavallero; Ildebrando Appollonio; Carlo Ferrarese

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The development of thrombotic coagulopathy is frequent in COVID-19 patients, but the timing after infection MESHD, cerebral venous system involvement, treatment and outcome are uncertain.Case Presentation: We report a case of massive cerebral venous thrombosis HP venous thrombosis MESHD occurring in the late phase of COVID-19 infection MESHD. Mild respiratory symptoms, without fever MESHD fever HP, started three weeks before headache MESHD headache HP and acute neurological deficits. She had no dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, although she was hypoxic and with typical COVID-19 associated interstitial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Brain CT scan showed a left parietal hypodense lesion with associated sulcal subarachnoid haemorrhage. CT angiography showed a massive cerebral vein thrombosis MESHD. An asymptomatic TRANS concomitant right internal iliac vein thrombosis MESHD was found. Both cerebral venous thrombosis HP venous thrombosis MESHD and deep venous thrombosis HP venous thrombosis MESHD were effectively treated with unfractionated heparin started on the day of admission, then shifted to low molecular weight heparin, with a favorable clinical course. Nasopharyngel swab, repeated twice, tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests SERO confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Conclusions: Our case supports active surveillance and prevention of thrombotic complications associated with COVID-19, which may affect both peripheral and cerebral venous system. Early initiation of unfractionated heparin may lead to good neurological outcome.

    Detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO is insufficient for the diagnosis of active or prior COVID-19

    Authors: Pilar Escribano; Ana Alvarez-Uria; Roberto Alonso; Pilar Catalán; Luis Alcala; Patricia Muñoz; Jesus Guinea

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    We assessed the performance SERO of Abbott's SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay and the PanbioTM COVID-19 IgG/IgM rapid test SERO device for the diagnosis of active and past/cured COVID-19. Three cohorts of patients were chosen. Cohort 1, patients (n=65) who attended the emergency MESHD department on March 30, 2020 with clinical suspicion of active COVID-19 (n=56 with proven/probable COVID-19). Cohort 2, hospital workers (n=92) who had either been (n=40) or not (n=52) diagnosed with proven/probable COVID-19 and were asymptomatic TRANS at the time of the sampling. Cohort 3, patients (n=38) cared at the hospital before the start of the COVID pandemic. Detection of serum SERO antibodies SERO was done using Abbott´s SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay and the PanbioTM COVID-19 IgG/IgM device. Both methods showed 98% agreement for IgG detection. No antibodies SERO were detected in the 38 samples from hospitalized pre-COVID subjects. The diagnostic performance SERO of IgGs detected by Abbott´s SARS-CoV-2 assay in Cohorts 1/2 was: sensitivity SERO (60.7%/75%) and specificity (100%/84.6%). The diagnostic performance SERO of IgM by PanbioTM COVID-19 in Cohorts 1/2 was: sensitivity SERO (16%/17.5%) and specificity (100%/98.1%). We show that IgG detection alone is insufficient for the diagnosis of active or past COVID-19. IgM detection has a limited diagnostic value. 

    Analyzing the dominant SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS modes towards an ab-initio SEIR model

    Authors: Swetaprovo Chaudhuri; Saptarshi Basu; Abhishek Saha

    id:2007.13596v1 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: arXiv

    In this work, different transmission TRANS modes of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and their role in determining the evolution of the Covid-19 pandemic are analyzed. Probability of infection MESHD caused by inhaling infectious droplets (initial, ejection diameters between 0.5-750$\mu m$) and probability of infection MESHD by the corresponding desiccated nuclei that mostly encapsulate the virions post droplet evaporation, are calculated. At typical, air-conditioned yet quiescent, large indoor space, for the average viral loading, and at early times, cough MESHD cough HP droplets of initial diameter between $10 \mu m$ and $50 \mu m$ have the highest infection MESHD probability. However, by the time they are to be inhaled, the diameters are most likely $5-6$ times smaller with respect to their initial diameters. While the initially near unity infection MESHD probability due to droplets (airborne/ballistic) rapidly decays within the first $25$s, the small yet persistent infection MESHD probability of airborne desiccated nuclei decays appreciably only by $1000$s. Combined with molecular collision theory adapted to calculate frequency of contact TRANS frequency of contact SERO between the susceptible population and the droplet/nuclei cloud, infection MESHD probabilities are used to define infection MESHD rate constants, ab-initio, leading to a SEIR model. Assuming the virus sustains equally well within the dried droplet nuclei as in the droplets, the floating nuclei leads to a stronger contribution to the corresponding rate constants with respect to the droplets, in the above-mentioned conditions. Combining both pathways, the basic reproduction number TRANS $\mathcal{R}_0$ caused by cough MESHD cough HP droplets and nuclei are calculated. Viral load, minimum infectious dose, sensitivity SERO of the virus half-life to the phase of its vector, extent of dilution of the respiratory jet/puff by the entraining air are the important factors that determine specific physical modes of transmission TRANS and the pandemic evolution.

    Low Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in Rhode Island Blood SERO Donors Determined using Multiple Serological Assay SERO Formats

    Authors: Daniel J Nesbitt; Daniel Jin; Joseph W Hogan; Philip A Chan; Melissa J Simon; Matthew Vargas; Ewa King; Richard C Huard; Utpala Bandy; Christopher D Hillyer; Larry L Luchsinger

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20157743 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Epidemic projections and public health policies addressing Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID)-19 have been implemented without data reporting on the seroconversion of the population since scalable antibody testing SERO has only recently become available. We measured the percentage of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD- Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) seropositive individuals from 2,008 blood SERO donors drawn in the state of Rhode Island (RI). We utilized multiple antibody testing SERO platforms, including lateral flow immunoassays SERO (LFAs), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays SERO ( ELISAs SERO) and high throughput serological assays SERO (HTSAs). We report than an estimated seropositive rate of RI blood SERO donors of approximately 0.6% existed in April-May of 2020. These data imply that seroconversion, and thus infection MESHD, is likely not widespread within this population. Daily new case rates peaked in RI in late April 2020. We conclude that IgG LFAs and HTSAs are suitable to conduct seroprevalence SERO assays in random populations. More studies will be needed using validated serological tests SERO to improve the precision and report the kinetic progression of seroprevalence SERO estimates.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibodies SERO in Utsunomiya City, Greater Tokyo, after first pandemic in 2020 (U-CORONA): a household- and population-based study

    Authors: Nobutoshi Nawa; Jin Kuramochi; Shiro Sonoda; Yui Yamaoka; Yoko Nukui; Yasunari Miyazaki; Takeo Fujiwara

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20155945 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The number of confirmed cases TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections MESHD in Japan are substantially lower in comparison to the US and UK, potentially due to the under-implementation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Studies reported that more than half of the SARS-CoV-2 infections are asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS, confirming the importance for conducting seroepidemiological studies. Although the seroepidemiological studies in Japan observed a reported prevalence SERO of 0.10% in Tokyo, 0.17% in Osaka, and 0.03% in Miyagi, sampling bias was not considered. The study objective was to assess the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in a random sample of households in Utsunomiya City in Tochigi Prefecture, Greater Tokyo, Japan. Methods: We launched the Utsunomiya COVID-19 seROprevalence SERO Neighborhood Association (U-CORONA) Study to assess the seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Utsunomiya City. The survey was conducted between 14 June 2020 and 5 July 2020, in between the first and second wave of the pandemic. Invitations enclosed with a questionnaire were sent to 2,290 people in 1,000 households randomly selected from Utsunomiya basic resident registry. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The level of IgG antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by chemiluminescence immunoassay SERO analysis. Results: Among 2,290 candidates, 753 returned the questionnaire and 742 received IgG tests (32.4 % participation rate). Of the 742 participants, 86.8% were 18 years or older, 52.6% were women, 71.1% were residing within 10 km from the test clinic, and 89.2% were living with another person. The age TRANS and sex distribution, distance to clinic and police district were similar with those of non-participants, while the proportion of single-person households was higher among non-participants than participants (16.2% vs. 10.8%). We confirmed three positive cases through quantitative antibody testing SERO. No positive cases were found among the people who live in the same household as someone with positive. All cases were afebrile. The estimated unweighted and weighted prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were 0.40% (95% confidence interval: 0.08-1.18%) and 1.23% (95% confidence interval: 0.17-2.28%), respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests the importance of detecting all cases using PCR or antigen testing, not only at a hospital, but also in areas where people assemble. Further prospective studies using this cohort are needed to monitor SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO levels.

    Covid-19 serology in nephrology health care workers

    Authors: Thomas Reiter; Sahra Pajenda; Ludwig Wagner; Martina Gaggl; Johanna Atamaniuk; Barbara Holzer; Irene Zimpernik; Daniela Gerges; Katharina Mayer; Christof Aigner; Robert Strassl; Sonja Jansen-Skoupy; Manuela Födinger; Gere Sunder-Plassmann; Alice Schmidt

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20136218 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD patients show a high mortality in case of a SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Thus, to be informed on Nephrology personnel's sero-status might be crucial for patient protection. However, limited information exists about the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in asymptomatic TRANS individuals. Methods: We examined the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies SERO among health care workers of a tertiary care kidney center during the peak phase of the Covid-19 crisis in Austria using an orthogonal test strategy and a total of 12 commercial nucleocapsid protein or spike glycoprotein based assays as well as Western blotting and a neutralization assay. Results: At baseline 60 of 235 study participants (25.5%, 95% CI: 20.4-31.5) were judged to be borderline positive or positive for IgM or IgG using a high sensitivity SERO/low specificity threshold in one test system. Follow-up analysis after about two weeks revealed IgG positivity in 12 (5.1%, 95% CI: 2.9-8.8) and IgM positivity in six (2.6%, 95% CI: 1.1-5.6) in at least one assay. 2.1% (95% CI: 0.8-5.0) of health care workers showed IgG nucleocapsid antibodies SERO in at least two assays. By contrast, positive controls with proven Covid-19 showed antibody SERO positivity among almost all test systems. Moreover, serum samples SERO obtained from health care workers did not show SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing capacity, in contrast to positive controls. Conclusions: Using a broad spectrum of antibody tests SERO the present study revealed inconsistent results for SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO among asymptomatic TRANS individuals, while this was not the case among Covid-19 patients.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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