Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 41 - 50 records in total 451
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    Performance SERO of Abbott Architect, Ortho Vitros, and Euroimmun Assays in Detecting Prior SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Shiwani Mahajan; Carrie A Redlich; Adam V Wisnewski; Louis E Fazen; Lokinendi V Rao; Karthik Kuppusamy; Albert I Ko; Harlan M Krumholz

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164343 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Several serological assays SERO have been developed to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO, but evidence about their comparative performance SERO is limited. We sought to assess the sensitivity SERO of four anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays SERO ( ELISA SERO) in individuals with evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods: We obtained sera from 36 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD between March and May 2020. We evaluated samples collected at around 21 days ({+/-}14 days) after their initial PCR test using 3 commercially available ELISA assays SERO, two anti-spike (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics Vitros, and Euroimmun) and one anti-nucleocapsid (Abbott Architect), and a Yale-developed anti-spike ELISA SERO test. We determined the sensitivity SERO of the tests and compared their results. The Euroimmun and Yale ELISA SERO had an equivocal and indeterminate category, which were considered as both negative and positive. Results: Among the 36 individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, mean age TRANS was 43 ({+/-}13) years and 19 (53%) were female TRANS. The sensitivities SERO of the tests were not significantly different (Abbott Architect, Ortho Vitros, Euroimmmun, and Yale assays: 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71-95), 94% (95% CI, 81-99), 86% (95% CI, 71-95), and 94% (95% CI, 81-99), respectively; p-value=0.464). The sensitivities SERO of the Euroimmun and Yale ELISA SERO tests increased when the equivocal/indeterminate results were considered positive (97% [95% CI, 85-100] and 100% [95% CI, 90-100], respectively), but were not significantly different from other tests (p=0.082). The cross-correlation coefficient ranged from 0.85-0.98 between three anti-spike protein assays (Ortho Vitros, Euroimmun, Yale) and was 0.58-0.71 between the three anti-spike protein assays and the anti-nucleocapsid assay (Abbott). Conclusion: The sensitivities SERO of four anti-SARS-CoV-2 protein assays did not significantly differ, although the sample size was small. Sensitivity SERO also depended on the interpretation of equivocal and indeterminate results. The strongest correlations were present for the three anti-spike proteins assays. These findings suggest that individual test characteristics and the correlation between different tests should be considered when comparing or aggregating data across different populations studies for serologic surveillance of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Cross-reactivity of SARS-CoV structural protein antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Timothy A Bates; Jules B Weinstein; Scotland E Farley; Hans C Leier; William B Messer; Fikadu G Tafesse

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.229377 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: bioRxiv

    There is currently a lack of biological tools to study the replication cycle and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19. Repurposing the existing tools, including antibodies SERO of SARS-CoV, is an effective way to accelerate the development of therapeutics for COVID-19. Here, we extensively characterized antibodies SERO of the SARS-CoV structural proteins for their cross-reactivity, experimental utility, and neutralization of SARS-CoV-2. We assessed a total of 10 antibodies SERO (six for Spike, two for Membrane, and one for Nucleocapsid and Envelope viral protein). We evaluated the utility of these antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 in a variety of assays, including immunofluorescence, ELISA SERO, biolayer interferometry, western blots, and micro-neutralization. Remarkably, a high proportion of the antibodies we tested SERO showed cross-reactivity, indicating a potentially generalizable theme of cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. These antibodies SERO should help facilitate further research into SARS-CoV-2 basic biology. Moreover, our study provides critical information about the propensity of SARS-CoV antibodies SERO to cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 and highlights its relevance in defining the clinical significance of such antibodies SERO to improve testing and guide the development of novel vaccines and therapeutics.

    Estimates of the rate of infection and asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 disease MESHD in a population sample from SE England

    Authors: Philippa M Wells; Katie M Doores; Simon Couvreur; Rocio Martin Martinez; Jeffrey Seow; Carl Graham; Sam Acors; Neophytos Kouphou; Stuart Neil; Richard Tedder; Pedro Matos; Kate Poulton; Maria Jose Lista; Ruth Dickenson; Helin Sertkaya; Thomas Maguire; Edward Scourfield; Ruth Bowyer; Deborah Hart; Aoife O'Byrne; Kathryn Steele; Oliver Hemmings; Carolina Rosadas; Myra McClure; Joan Capedevila-Pujol; Jonathan wolf; Sebastien Ourseilin; Matthew Brown; Michael Malim; Timothy Spector; Claire Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20162701 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Understanding of the true asymptomatic TRANS rate of infection MESHD of SARS-CoV-2 is currently limited, as is understanding of the population-based seroprevalence SERO after the first wave of COVID-19 within the UK. The majority of data thus far come from hospitalised patients, with little focus on general population cases, or their symptoms. Methods: We undertook enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO characterisation of IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein of 431 unselected general-population participants of the TwinsUK cohort from South-East England, aged TRANS 19-86 (median age TRANS 48; 85% female TRANS). 382 participants completed prospective logging of 14 COVID-19 related symptoms via the COVID Symptom Study App, allowing consideration of serology alongside individual symptoms, and a predictive algorithm for estimated COVID-19 previously modelled on PCR positive individuals from a dataset of over 2 million. Findings: We demonstrated a seroprevalence SERO of 12% (51participants of 431). Of 48 seropositive individuals with full symptom data, nine (19%) were fully asymptomatic TRANS, and 16 (27%) were asymptomatic TRANS for core COVID-19 symptoms: fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP or anosmia HP. Specificity of anosmia HP for seropositivity was 95%, compared to 88% for fever MESHD fever HP cough MESHD cough HP and anosmia HP combined. 34 individuals in the cohort were predicted to be Covid-19 positive using the App algorithm, and of those, 18 (52%) were seropositive. Interpretation: Seroprevalence SERO amongst adults TRANS from London and South-East England was 12%, and 19% of seropositive individuals with prospective symptom logging were fully asymptomatic TRANS throughout the study. Anosmia HP demonstrated the highest symptom specificity for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO response. Funding: NIHR BRC, CDRF, ZOE global LTD, RST-UKRI/MRC

    Transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 following exposure in school settings: experience from two Helsinki area exposure incidents.

    Authors: Timothee Dub; Elina Erra; Lotta Hagberg; Emmi Sarvikivi; Camilla Virta; Asko Jarvinen; Pamela Osterlund; Niina Ikonen; Anu Haveri; Merit Melin; Timo J Lukkarinen; Hanna Nohynek

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20156018 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The role of children TRANS in SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS is unclear. We investigated two COVID-19 school exposure incidents in the Helsinki area. Methods: We conducted two retrospective cohort studies after schools exposures, with a household transmission TRANS extension. We defined a case as an exposed person with either a positive RT-PCR, or positive microneutralisation testing (MNT) as confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein IgG antibodies SERO detection via fluorescent microsphere immunoassay SERO (FMIA). We recruited close school contacts and families of school cases, calculated attack rates TRANS (AR) on school level and families, and identified transmission chains TRANS. Findings: In incident A, the index was a pupil. Participation rate was 74% (89/121), and no cases were identified. In incident B, the index was a member of school personnel. Participation rate was 81% (51/63). AR was 16% (8/51): 6 pupils and 1 member of school personnel were MNT and FMIA positive; 1 pupil had a positive RT-PCR, but negative serology samples. We visited all school cases' families (n=8). The AR among close household contacts TRANS was 42% (9/20 in 3/8 families) but other plausible sources were always reported. At three months post-exposure, 6/8 school cases were re-sampled and still MNT positive. Interpretation: When the index was a child TRANS, no school transmission TRANS was identified, while the occurrence of an adult TRANS case led to a 16% AR. Further cases were evidenced in 3 families, but other transmission chains TRANS were plausible. It is likely that transmission TRANS from children TRANS to adults TRANS is limited. Funding: The Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare funded this study.

    Back to school: use of Dried Blood SERO Spot for the detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) among schoolchildren in Milan, Italy.

    Authors: Antonella Amendola; Silvia Bianchi; Maria Gori; Lucia Barcellini; Daniela Colzani; Marta Canuti; Vania Giacomet; Valentina Fabiano; Laura Folgori; Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti; Elisabetta Tanzi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164186 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Serological surveillance is necessary to the reestablishment of school activities in safe conditions and to avoid school-related outbreaks. In this study, DBS (Dried Blood SERO Spots) have proven to be a simple, rapid and reliable sample collection tool for detecting antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 by ELISA SERO test compared to matched serum samples SERO from venous sampling (R2=0.9553; Pearson's coefficient=0.98; Cohen's unweighted k=0.93; overall agreement=96.2%). This approach may facilitate sample collection from schoolchildren for serological surveys useful to an adequate risk-assessment.

    SARS-CoV-2 serology increases diagnostic accuracy in CT-suspected, PCR-negative COVID-19 patients during pandemic

    Authors: Jochen Schneider; Hrvoje Mijocevic; Kurt Ulm; Bernhardt Ulm; Simon Weidlich; Silvia Wuerstle; Kathrin Rothe; Matthias Treiber; Roman Iakoubov; Ulrich Mayr; Tobias Lahmer; Sebastian Rasch; Alexander Herner; Egon Burian; Fabian Lohöfer; Rickmer Braren; Marcus Makowski; Roland Schmid; Ulrike Protzer; Christoph Spinner; Fabian Geisler

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51336/v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In the absence of PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 is challenging. Low-dose computed tomography (CT) detects pulmonary infiltrates HP with high sensitivity SERO, but findings may be non-specific. This study assesses the diagnostic value of SARS-CoV-2 serology for patients with distinct CT features but negative PCR. Methods: IgM/IgG chemiluminescent immunoassay SERO was performed for 107 patients with confirmed (group A: PCR+; CT±) and 46 patients with suspected (group B: repetitive PCR-; CT+) COVID-19, admitted to a German university hospital during the pandemic’s first wave. A standardized, in-house CT classification of radiological signs of a viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP was used to assess the probability of COVID-19. Results: Seroconversion rates (SR) determined on day 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 after symptom onset TRANS (SO) were 8%, 25%, 65%, 76% and 91% for group A, and 0%, 10%, 19%, 37% and 46% for group B, respectively; (p<0.01). Compared to hospitalized patients with a non-complicated course, seroconversion tended to occur at lower frequency and delayed in patients on intensive care units. SR of patients with CT findings classified as high certainty for COVID-19 were 9%, 26%, 65%, 77% and 92% in group A, compared with 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% in group B (p<0.01). SARS-CoV-2 serology established a definite diagnosis in 12/46 group B patients. In 88% (8/9) of patients with negative serology >14 days after symptom onset TRANS (group B), clinico-radiological consensus reassessment revealed probable diagnoses other than COVID-19. Sensitivity SERO of SARS-CoV-2 serology was superior to PCR >17d after symptom onset TRANS. Conclusions: Approximately one-third of patients with distinct COVID-19 CT findings are tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by PCR rendering correct diagnosis difficult. Implementation of SARS-CoV-2 serology testing alongside current CT/PCR-based diagnostic algorithms improves discrimination between COVID-19-related and non-related pulmonary infiltrates HP in PCR negative patients. However, sensitivity SERO of SARS-CoV-2 serology strongly depends on the time of testing and becomes superior to PCR after the 2 nd week following symptom onset TRANS.

    Magnetic bead-based ELISA SERO allow inexpensive, rapid and quantitative detection of human antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Luciano F Huergo; Marcelo S Conzentino; Edileusa C M Gerhardt; Adrian R.S. Santos; Fabio de Oliveira Pedrosa; Emanuel M Souza; Meri B Nogueira; Karl Forchhammer; Fabiane G.M Rego; Sonia M Raboni; Rodrigo A Reis

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.26.20162255 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Here we describe a novel immunogenic method to detect COVID-19. The method is a chromogenic magnetic bead-based ELISA SERO which allows inexpensive and quantitative detection of human IgG or IgM antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 in serum SERO or whole blood SERO samples in just 12 minutes. As a proof of concept, we compared the performance SERO of our new method to classical ELISA SERO. Person correlation between optical densities obtained using the two methods was 0.98. The novel magnetic bead-based ELISA SERO performed better than classic ELISA SERO to discriminate one COVID-19 case carrying low antibody SERO titer. The chromogenic magnetic bead-based ELISA SERO method described here can be applied in formats for both point of care and high throughput analysis. The method is readily adaptable to use other protein-based antigens and is readily adaptable to investigate other diseases MESHD and other applications.

    Error Correction Codes for COVID-19 Virus and Antibody Testing SERO: Using Pooled Testing to Increase Test Reliability

    Authors: Jirong Yi; Myung Cho; Xiaodong Wu; Weiyu Xu; Raghu Mudumbai

    id:2007.14919v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: arXiv

    We consider a novel method to increase the reliability of COVID-19 virus or antibody tests SERO by using specially designed pooled testings. Instead of testing nasal swab or blood SERO samples from individual persons, we propose to test mixtures of samples from many individuals. The pooled sample testing method proposed in this paper also serves a different purpose: for increasing test reliability and providing accurate diagnoses even if the tests themselves are not very accurate. Our method uses ideas from compressed sensing and error-correction coding to correct for a certain number of errors in the test results. The intuition is that when each individual's sample is part of many pooled sample mixtures, the test results from all of the sample mixtures contain redundant information about each individual's diagnosis, which can be exploited to automatically correct for wrong test results in exactly the same way that error correction codes correct errors introduced in noisy communication channels. While such redundancy can also be achieved by simply testing each individual's sample multiple times, we present simulations and theoretical arguments that show that our method is significantly more efficient in increasing diagnostic accuracy. In contrast to group testing and compressed sensing which aim to reduce the number of required tests, this proposed error correction code idea purposefully uses pooled testing to increase test accuracy, and works not only in the "undersampling" regime, but also in the "oversampling" regime, where the number of tests is bigger than the number of subjects. The results in this paper run against traditional beliefs that, "even though pooled testing increased test capacity, pooled testings were less reliable than testing individuals separately."

    SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO responses determine disease MESHD severity in COVID-19 infected individuals

    Authors: Cecilie Bo Hansen; Ida Jarlhelt; Laura Pérez-Alós; Lone Hummelshøj Landsy; Mette Loftager; Anne Rosbjerg; Charlotte Helgstrand; Jais Rose Bjelke; Thomas Egebjerg; Joseph G. Jardine; Charlotte Sværke Jørgensen; Kasper Iversen; Rafael Bayarri-Olmos; Peter Garred; Mikkel-Ole Skjoedt

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20162321 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had extreme consequences for the healthcare system and calls for diagnostic tools to monitor and understand the transmission TRANS, pathogenesis and epidemiology, as well as to evaluate future vaccination strategies. Here we have developed novel flexible ELISA SERO-based assays for specific detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO against the receptor-binding domain (RBD): An antigen sandwich- ELISA SERO relevant for large population screening and three isotype-specific assays for in-depth diagnostics. Their performance SERO was evaluated in a cohort of 350 convalescent participants with previous COVID-19 infection MESHD, ranging from asymptomatic TRANS to critical cases. We mapped the antibody SERO responses to different areas on protein N and S and showed that the IgM, A and G antibody SERO responses against RBD are significantly correlated to the disease MESHD severity. These assays-and the data generated from them-are highly relevant for diagnostics and prognostics and contribute to the understanding of long-term COVID-19 immunity.

    Sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion by flow cytometry reveals the presence of nucleoprotein-reactive antibodies SERO in Covid-19-naive individuals

    Authors: Leire Egia-Mendikute; Alexandre Bosch; Endika Prieto-Fernandez; So Young Lee; Borja Jimenez-Lasheras; Ana Garcia del Rio; Asier Antonana-Vildosola; Chiara Bruzzone; Maider Bizkarguenaga; Nieves Embade; Nicola G A Abrescia; Jose M. Mato; Oscar Millet; Asis Palazon

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20162941 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    We have developed a novel multiplexed flow cytometric bead array (C19BA) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion that allows sensitive identification of IgG and IgM antibodies SERO against three immunogenic proteins: the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), the spike protein subunit 1 (S1) and the nucleoprotein (N) simultaneously. This assay is more sensitive than ELISA SERO, and the combination of three antigens allows for the interrogation of full seroconversion. Importantly, we have detected N-reactive antibodies SERO in COVID-19-negative individuals.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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