Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (268)

Disease (184)

Death (114)

Coronavirus Infections (91)

Fever (41)


Human Phenotype

Fever (41)

Hypertension (35)

Cough (34)

Anxiety (32)

Obesity (22)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Community prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 virus in England during May 2020: REACT study

    Authors: Steven Riley; Kylie E. C. Ainslie; Oliver Eales; Benjamin Jeffrey; Caroline E. Walters; Christina J Atchison; Peter J. Diggle; Deborah Ashby; Christl A. Donnelly; Graham Cooke; Wendy Barclay; Helen Ward; Graham Taylor; Ara Darzi; Paul Elliott

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150524 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background England has experienced one of the highest rates of confirmed COVID-19 mortality in the world. SARS-CoV-2 virus has circulated in hospitals, care homes and the community since January 2020. Our current epidemiological knowledge is largely informed by clinical cases with far less understanding of community transmission TRANS. Methods The REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission TRANS (REACT) study is a nationally representative prevalence SERO survey of SARS-CoV-2 virus swab-positivity in the community in England. We recruited participants regardless of symptom status. Results We found 159 positives from 120,610 swabs giving an average prevalence SERO of 0.13% (95% CI: 0.11%,0.15%) from 1st May to 1st June 2020. We showed decreasing prevalence SERO with a halving time of 8.6 (6.2, 13.6) days, implying an overall reproduction number TRANS R of 0.57 (0.45, 0.72). Adults TRANS aged TRANS 18 to 24 yrs had the highest swab-positivity rates, while those >64 yrs had the lowest. Of the 126 participants who tested positive with known symptom status in the week prior to their swab, 39 reported symptoms while 87 did not, giving an estimate that 69% (61%,76%) of people were symptom-free for the 7 days prior testing positive in our community sample. Symptoms strongly associated with swab-positivity were: nausea MESHD nausea and/or vomiting HP and/or vomiting MESHD, diarrhoea, blocked nose, loss of smell, loss of taste, headache MESHD headache HP, chills MESHD chills HP and severe fatigue MESHD fatigue HP. Recent contact with a known COVID-19 case was associated with odds of 24 (16, 38) for swab-positivity. Compared with non-key workers, odds of swab-positivity were 7.7 (2.4, 25) among care home (long-term care facilities) workers and 5.2 (2.9, 9.3) among health care workers. However, some of the excess risk associated with key worker status was explained by recent contact with COVID-19 cases. We found no strong evidence for geographical variability in positive swab results. Conclusion Our results provide a reliable baseline against which the impact of subsequent relaxation of lockdown can be assessed to inform future public health efforts to control transmission TRANS.

    Psychological state and family functioning of University of Ibadan students during the COVID-19 lockdown

    Authors: Lucia Yetunde Ojewale

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20149997 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: The curtailment of social gatherings as well as lack of online academic engagement, due to the COVID-19 lockdown, could have potentially damaging effects on the psychological state of university students in Nigeria. This study examined the prevalence SERO of anxiety HP and depression, including associated factors and coping methods among undergraduate students in a Nigerian university. It also examined the association between psychological state and family functioning. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and involved 386 undergraduate students across the main faculties. The university's ethical review board approved the study with approval number UI/EC/20/0242. An online questionnaire, using Google form, was circulated among the students through their faculty representatives. The Hospital Anxiety HP and Depression scale (HADs) was used in assessing anxiety HP and depression, while family functioning was assessed using the McMaster Family Assessment Device, (FAD). Data was entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), and analysis carried out using descriptive statistics, chi-square, independent t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Post-Hoc analysis and linear logistics regression, at 0.05. Results: The mean age TRANS was 21 {+/-} 2.9 years, with a female TRANS population of 60.1%. Prevalence SERO of anxiety HP and depression were 41.5% and 31.9% respectively. Students in health-related faculties were significantly less anxious than those in other faculties. Inability to afford three square meals, negative family functioning, having a chronic illness and living in a State/Region with a high incidence of COVID-19, was significantly associated with depression. These factors jointly accounted for 14% of depression seen in undergraduate students. Most of the students coped by engaging themselves in social media, watching television/movies and participating in other online skill development programmes. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence SERO of anxiety HP and depression among university students with poor family functioning, inability to afford three meals/day, living in a state with a high incidence of COVID-19 and having a chronic illness, contributing to depression. Measures need to be taken to support undergraduate students and their families to prevent the negative consequences of poor mental health. Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; undergraduate students; anxiety HP; depression; psychological state; family-functioning, coping.

    Serum SERO-IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 after mild and severe COVID-19 infection MESHD and analysis of IgG non-responders

    Authors: Emelie Marklund; Susannah Leach; Hannes Axelsson; Kristina Nordström; Heléne Norder; Mats Bemark; Davide Angeletti; Anna Lundgren; Staffan Nilsson; Lars-Magnus Andersson; Aylin Yilmaz; Magnus Lindh; Jan-Åke Liljeqvist; Magnus Gisslén

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20151324 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: To accurately interpret COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO surveys, knowledge of serum SERO-IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 with a better understanding of patients who do not seroconvert, is imperative. This study aimed to describe serum SERO-IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of patients with both severe and mild COVID-19, including extended studies of patients who remained seronegative more than 90 days post symptom onset TRANS. Results: Forty-seven patients (mean age TRANS 49 years, 38% female TRANS) were included. All (15/15) patients with severe symptoms and 29/32 (90.6%) patients with mild symptoms of COVID-19 developed SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies SERO in serum SERO. Time to seroconversion was significantly shorter (median 11 vs. 22 days, P=0.04) in patients with severe compared to mild symptoms. Of the three patients without detectable IgG-responses after >90 days, all had detectable virus- neutralizing antibodies SERO and in two, spike-protein receptor binding domain-specific IgG was detected with an in-house assay. Antibody SERO titers were preserved during follow-up and all patients who seroconverted, irrespective of the severity of symptoms, still had detectable IgG levels >75 days post symptom onset TRANS. Conclusions: Patients with severe COVID-19 both seroconvert earlier and develop higher concentrations of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG than patients with mild symptoms. Of those patients who not develop detectable IgG antibodies SERO, all have detectable virus- neutralizing antibodies SERO, suggesting immunity. Our results showing that not all COVID-19 patients develop detectable IgG using two validated commercial clinical methods, even over time, are vital for the interpretation of COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO surveys and for estimating the true infection MESHD prevalence SERO in populations.

    Modeling and Preparedness: The Transmission TRANS Dynamics of COVID-19 Outbreak in Provinces of Ecuador

    Authors: Carlos Enrique Bustamante Orellana; Jordy Jose Cevallos Chavez; Cesar Montalvo; Jeff Sullivan; Edwin Michael; Anuj Mubayi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20150078 Date: 2020-07-11

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), a novel infectious disease MESHD first identified in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan of China, is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease MESHD has become a pandemic in just a few months and spread globally with more than 2.89 million cases and 203,000 deaths MESHD across 185 countries, as of April 26th, 2020. Ecuador has reported one of the highest rates of COVID-19 in Latin America, with more than 10K cases and 500 deaths MESHD in a country of approximately 17 million people. The dynamics of the outbreak is being observed quite different in different provinces of Ecuador with high reported prevalence SERO in some low population density provinces. In this study, we aim to understand variations in outbreaks between provinces and provide assistance in essential preparedness planning in order to respond effectively to ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. The study estimated the critical level of quarantine rate along with corresponding leakage in order to avoid overwhelming the local health care system. The results suggest that provinces with high population density can avoid a large disease MESHD burden provided they initiate early and stricter quarantine measures even under low isolation rate. To best of our knowledge, this study is first from the region to determine which provinces will need much preparation for current outbreak in fall HP and which might need more help.

    Commercial Serology Assays Predict Neutralization Activity Against SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Raymond T Suhandynata; Melissa A Hoffman; Deli Huang; Jenny T Tran; Michael J Kelner; Sharon L Reed; Ronald W McLawhon; James E Voss; David Nemazee; Robert Fitzgerald

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150946 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background. Currently it is unknown whether a positive serology results correlates with protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. There are also concerns regarding the low positive predictive value SERO of SARS-CoV-2 serology tests, especially when testing populations with low disease MESHD prevalence SERO. Methods. A neutralization assay was validated in a set of PCR confirmed positive specimens and in a negative cohort. 9,530 specimens were screened using the Diazyme SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology assay and all positive results (N=164) were reanalyzed using the neutralization assay, the Roche total immunoglobin assay, and the Abbott IgG assay. The relationship between the magnitude of a positive SARS-CoV-2 serology result and the levels of neutralizing antibodies SERO detected was correlated. Neutralizing antibody SERO titers (ID50) were also longitudinally monitored in SARS-CoV-2 PCR confirmed patients. Results. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay had a PPA of 96.6% with a SARS-CoV-2 PCR test and a NPA of 98.0% across 100 negative controls. ID50 neutralization titers positively correlated with all three clinical serology platforms. Longitudinal monitoring of hospitalized PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients demonstrates they made high neutralization titers against SARS-CoV-2. PPA between the Diazyme IgG assay alone and the neutralization assay was 50.6%, while combining the Diazyme IgG assay with either the Roche or Abbott platforms increased the PPA to 79.2% and 78.4%, respectively. Conclusions. For the first time, we demonstrate that three widely available clinical serology assays positively correlate with SARS-CoV-2 neutralization activity observed in COVID-19 patients. When a two-platform screen and confirm approach was used for SARS-CoV-2 serology, nearly 80% of two-platform positive specimens had neutralization titers (ID50 >50).

    COVID-19 causing HELLP-like syndrome MESHD in pregnancy and role of angiogenic factors for differential diagnosis

    Authors: Francesc Figueras; Elisa LLurba; Raigam Martinez-Portilla; Josefina Mora; Fatima Crispi; Eduard Gratacos

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20133801 Date: 2020-07-11

    Importance: The clinical presentation of hemolysis MESHD, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count ( HELLP) syndrome MESHD is one of the more severe forms of preeclampsia HP. COVID-19 infection MESHD exhibits signs that are shared with preeclampsia HP and HELLP syndrome MESHD, which may lead to needless interventions and iatrogenic preterm delivery. Objective: We evaluated the prevalence SERO of HELLP-like signs in pregnant women admitted for COVID-19 and the value of angiogenic factors to rule out preeclampsia HP. Methods: a consecutive series of 27 pregnant women beyond 20 weeks of gestation, with symptomatic COVID-19. Clinical and analytical features were recorded and those cases with signs of HELLP syndrome MESHD were tested for sFlt-1/PlGF ratio. Results: Seven patients (25.9%) presented at least one sign of suspected HELLP syndrome MESHD, of which 2 (7.4%) were diagnosed clinically with PE because of hypertension MESHD hypertension HP and high transaminases and 5 (18.5%) had only elevated transaminases. sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was normal in 6 of 7. Conclusion: Symptomatic COVID-19 may simulate severe preeclampsia HP in pregnancy. Angiogenic factors may be essential to avoid false diagnosis and needless interventions. These data were presented in a Virtual Symposium on Covid-19 and Pregnancy on 17 April: 2020:(http://medicinafetalbarcelona.org/simposiocovid19/ [Spanish] and https://medicinafetalbarcelona.org/symposiumcovid19/ [English]

    Eurofins Covid-19 Sentinel TM Wastewater Test Provide Early Warning of a potential COVID-19 outbreak

    Authors: Alissa Udi Jorgensen; Jesper Gamst; Line Visby Hansen; Ida Ingeborg Hogh Knudsen; SorenJensen Krohn Skovgaard Jensen

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150573 Date: 2020-07-11

    The Eurofins Covid-19 SentinelTM program was developed to monitor the evolution of the pandemic and for early detection of outbreaks. The study objective was to develop a wastewater testing method to analyze SARS-CoV-2 as an indicator of community infection MESHD rate resurgence of COVID-19 or in well-defined sites such as production facilities or nursing homes. Eurofins performed >700 tests on 78 unique samples from 18 sites in Denmark, France and Belgium. Ten variant test protocols were trialed. Protocol variations trialed included centrifugation, precipitation of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA, agitation HP prior to precipitation, cooling, and pasteurization of the samples. A method was succesfully developed and reliability was supported by stability, reproducibility, and dilution & linearity studies. Results obtained showed a direct link to number of RNA copies in the sample using a calibration curve with synthetic SARS-CoV-2. Analysis was performed on both the liquid phase and solid phase of wastewater samples, with virus RNA detected in both phases but more frequently in the liquid phase. The virus was present in a sample from a Danish community wastewater treatment plant collected on February 24, 3 days before the first COVID-19 case was officially reported in the country. The greatest concentration of virus detected corresponded to when the COVID-19 crisis was at its peak in Denmark. Based on studies carried out in a Danish hospital, the wastewater testing method is expected to be able to detect a community COVID-19 prevalence SERO rate as low as a 0,02%-0,1% (i.e. between 2 virus shedders per 10000 and 1 virus shedder per 1000). The wastewater testing method was used to monitor a Danish Community after a COVID-19 outbreak and it was shown that the method can be used as a semi-quantitative method to monitor the development of an outbreak.

    Diagnostic value of skin manifestation MESHD of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Veronique Bataille; Alessia Visconti; Niccolo' Rossi; Benjamin Murray; Abigail Bournot; Jonathan Wolf; Sebastien Ourselin; Claire Steves; Timothy Spector; Mario Falchi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150656 Date: 2020-07-11

    SARS-CoV-2 causes multiple immune-related reactions at various stages of the disease MESHD. The wide variety of skin presentations has delayed linking these to the virus. Previous studies had attempted to look at the prevalence SERO and timing of SARS-COV-2 rashes but were based on mostly hospitalized severe cases and had little follow up. Using data collected on a subset of 336,847 eligible UK users of the COVID Symptom Study app, we observed that 8.8% of the swab positive cases (total: 2,021 subjects) reported either a body rash or an acral rash, compared to 5.4% of those with a negative swab test (total: 25,136). Together, these two skin presentations showed an odds ratio (OR) of 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41-1.96) for being swab positive. Skin rashes HP were also predictive in the larger untested group of symptomatic app users (N=54,652), as 8.2% of those who had reported at least one classical COVID-19 symptom, i.e., fever MESHD fever HP, persistent cough MESHD cough HP, and/or anosmia HP, also reported a rash. Data from an independent online survey of 11,546 respondents with a rash showed that in 17% of swab positive cases, the rash was the initial presentation. Furthermore, in 21%, the rash was the only clinical sign. Skin rashes HP cluster with other COVID-19 symptoms, are predictive of a positive swab test and occur in a significant number of cases, either alone or before other classical symptoms. Recognising rashes is important in identifying new and earlier COVID-19 cases.

    Serological Tests SERO for SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus by Commercially Available Point-of-Care and Laboratory Diagnostics in Pre-COVID-19 Samples in Japan

    Authors: Mariko Harada Sassa; Zhaoqing Lyu; Tomoko Fujitani; Kouji H. Harada

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150904 Date: 2020-07-11

    Serological tests SERO for SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in pre-COVID-19 samples in Japan showed 1.5%-1.75% positives, and previous surveys might overestimate COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO in several population of Japan. These false negatives could be excluded by combination of different diagnostics to 0.25%.

    Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD: case series in Sinaloa

    Authors: Giordano Perez Gaxiola; Rosalino Flores Rocha; Julio Cesar Valadez Vidarte; Melissa Hernandez Alcaraz; Gilberto Herrera Mendoza; Miguel Alejandro Del Real Lugo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20146332 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus may affect both adults TRANS and children TRANS. Although the disease MESHD, named COVID-19, has a lower prevalence SERO in infancy and has been described as mild, the clinical characteristics may vary and there is a possibility of complications. Objectives: To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric cases confirmed TRANS in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, during the first three months of the pandemic, and of children TRANS admitted with COVID-19 to a secondary hospital. Methods: This case series includes all patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection confirmed TRANS confirmed by PCR testing, identified in the state epidemiological surveillance system between March 1 and May 31, 2020. Confirmed patients admitted to the Sinaloa Pediatric Hospital (HPS) during the same dates are also described. Results: Fifty one children TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 were included, 10 of the admitted to HPS. The median age TRANS was 10 years. The more frequent symptoms were fever MESHD fever HP (78%), cough MESHD cough HP (67%) and headache MESHD headache HP (57%). Most cases were mild or asymptomatic TRANS. Three patients with comorbidities died. Only 4 of 10 patients identified in HPS had been admitted with the diagnosis of possible COVID-19. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS was mostly mild or asymptomatic TRANS, but with a wide range of clinical presentations.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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