Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Infections (432)

Disease (305)

Death (181)

Coronavirus Infections (164)

Fever (75)

Human Phenotype

Fever (75)

Anxiety (66)

Cough (59)

Hypertension (54)

Pneumonia (38)


    displaying 511 - 520 records in total 899
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    The Challenge of Using Epidemiological Case Count Data: The Example of Confirmed COVID-19 Cases and the Weather

    Authors: Francois Cohen; Moritz Schwarz; Sihan Li; Yangsiyu Lu; Anant Jani

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.20108803 Date: 2020-05-23 Source: medRxiv

    The publicly available data on COVID-19 cases provides an opportunity to better understand this new disease MESHD. However, strong attention needs to be paid to the limitations of the data to avoid making inaccurate conclusions. This article, which focuses on the relationship between the weather and COVID-19, raises the concern that the same factors influencing the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD might also affect the number of tests performed and who gets tested. For example, weather conditions impact the prevalence SERO of respiratory diseases MESHD with symptoms similar to COVID-19, and this will likely influence the number of tests performed. This general limitation could severely undermine any similar analysis using existing COVID-19 data or similar epidemiological data, which could, therefore, mislead decision-makers on questions of great policy relevance.

    Neurological Involvement of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019: A Systematic Review

    Authors: Malik Ghannam; Qasem Alshaer; Mustafa Al-Chalabi; Lara Zakarna; Jetter Robertson; Georgios Manousakis

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In December 2019, unexplained cases of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP emerged in Wuhan, China, which were found to be secondary to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-2019) outbreak, a pandemic. Although the most common presentations of COVID-19 are fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP and shortness of breath, several clinical observations indicate that COVID-19 does affect the central and peripheral nervous system.  Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search from December 01, 2019 to May 14, 2020 using multiple combinations of keywords from PubMed and Ovid Medline databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We included articles with cases of COVID-19 that were evident for neurological involvement.  Results: We were able to identify 82 cases of COVID-19 with neurological complications. The mean age TRANS was 62.28 years. 37.8% of the patients were women (n = 31). 48.8% of the patients (n=40) had cerebrovascular insults, 28% (n=23) had neuromuscular disorders, 18.3% of the patients (n=15) had encephalitis MESHD encephalitis HP or encephalopathy HP, and 2.4% (n=2) presented with status epilepticus MESHD status epilepticus HP. Conclusions: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 infection MESHD are not rare, especially large vessel stroke MESHD stroke HP, Guillain barre syndrome MESHD and meningoencephalitis MESHD. Moving forward, further studies are needed to clarify the prevalence SERO of the neurological complications of COVID-19, investigate their biological backgrounds, and test treatment options. Physicians should be cautious not to overlook other neurological diagnoses that can mimic COVID-19 during the pandemic.

    COVID-19: Neutrophils “Unfriendly Fire” Imbalance Proteolytic Cascades Triggering Clinical Worsening and Viral Sepsis MESHD Sepsis HP. Potential Role Explanation for Convalescent Plasma SERO as “Fire Hose”

    Authors: Pier Maria Fornasari

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0373.v1 Date: 2020-05-23 Source:

    Based on Chinese CDCP report on COVID-19, 14% of patients presented severe disease MESHD and 5% critical conditions. The average case-fatality rate was 2.3%, but mortality was as high as 49% in patients with critical illness MESHD. Serious life threatening thromboembolic complications have been found in 71·4% of non-survivors and micro/macro angiopathic coagulopathy has been found, also at autopsy, with highly increased neutrophil number, fibrinogen, concentrations of D-dimer and FDPs and NETs, ATIII decrease and normal number of platelets. A cytokine storm and interaction between inflammation MESHD and coagulation has been advocated as explanation of hypercoagulability HP. In this paper, it’s hypothesised that SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of alveolar cells induces recruitment of innate responder neutrophils, which release proteases and NETs inducing endothelial damage/endotheliopathy and imbalance of the four major proteolytic cascades (coagulation, complement, fibrinolysis and kallikrein) with prevalence SERO of activators over inhibitors and consequent thrombotic complications. Platelets adhesion to damaged endothelium and the presence of ULVWF multimers, due to decreased ADAMTS13, contributes to the state of hypercoagulability HP. Neutrophil innate “unfriendly fire” response can be identified as the trigger of a “proteolytic storm”, responsible for subsequent well known prothrombotic condition and “cytokine storm”. The hypothesis explains also the pathology of recently described systemic “Kawasaki Disease MESHD like” vasculitis MESHD vasculitis HP cases in Covid-19 young ill patients.

    Evaluation of Neutralizing Antibodies SERO against Highly Pathogenic Coronaviruses: A Detailed Protocol for a Rapid Evaluation of Neutralizing Antibodies SERO Using Vesicular Stomatitis MESHD Stomatitis HP Virus (Vsv) Pseudovirus-Based Assay

    Authors: Sarah A. Almahboub; Abdullah Algaissi; Mohamed A. Alfaleh; M-Zaki ElAssouli; Anwar M. Hashem

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0379.v1 Date: 2020-05-23 Source:

    Emerging highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs) represent a serious ongoing threat to the public health worldwide. The spike (S) proteins of CoVs are surface glycoproteins that facilitate viral entry into host cells via attachment to their respective cellular receptors. The S protein is believed to be a major immunogenic component of CoVs and a target for neutralizing antibodies SERO (nAbs) and most candidate vaccines. Development of a safe and convenient assay is thus urgently needed to determine the prevalence SERO of CoVs nAbs in the population, to study immune response in infected individuals, and to aid in vaccines and viral entry inhibitors evaluation. While live virus-based neutralization assays are used as gold standard serological methods to detect and measure nAbs, handling of highly pathogenic live CoVs requires strict bio-containment conditions in biosafety level-3 laboratories. On the other hand, use of replication-incompetent pseudoviruses bearing CoVs S proteins could represent a safe and useful method to detect nAbs in serum samples SERO under biosafety level-2 conditions. Here, we describe a detailed protocol of a safe and convenient assay to generate vesicular stomatitis MESHD stomatitis HP virus (VSV)-based pseudoviruses to evaluate and measure nAbs against highly pathogenic CoVs. The protocol covers methods to produce VSV pseudovirus bearing the S protein of the Middle East respiratory syndrome MESHD-CoV (MERS-CoV) and the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2), pseudovirus titration, and pseudovirus neutralizing assay. Such assay could be adapted by different laboratories and researchers working on highly pathogenic CoVs without the need to handle live viruses in biosafety level-3 environment.

    Early experiences with antibody testing SERO in a Flemish nursing home during an acute COVID-19 outbreak: a retrospective cohort study.

    Authors: Frank Buntinx; Peter Claes; Marjo Gulikers; Jan Y Verbakel; Jan De Lepeleire; Michael Van der Elst; Marc Van Ranst; Pieter Vermeersch

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105874 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    objectives: to assess the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 (PCR-test) in residents and staff of a nursing home. To examine the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies SERO in the sample and the relation between PCR and antibody test SERO results. design: cross-sectional and (retrospective) cohort study setting: a nursing home for the elderly TRANS Bessemerberg in Lanaken (Belgium) with up to 130 beds. Lanaken is situated in the Belgian province with the highest COVID-19 prevalence SERO. participants: residents (N=108) and staff members (N=93) of the nursing home outcomes: PCR, IgM and IgG results: the prevalence SERO of COVID-19, based on PCR test was 34% (N=40) for residents and 13% (N=11) for staff members, respectively. Of the residents, 13% showed positive IgM results and 15% positive IgG results. In 17% of the residents, at least one of the antibodies SERO was positive. In total 13% of the staff members had positive IgM and 16% had a positive IgG. In 20% of the staff members at least one of these antibody tests SERO was positive. In PCR positive residents, the percentage of IgM positive, IgG positive, and at least one of both was 28%, 34%, and 41%. In PCR positive staff, we found 30%, 60%, and 60%. Additional antibody tests SERO were performed in nine residents between day 11 and 14 after the positive PCR test. Of those, 7 (78%) tested positive on at least one antibody SERO. When retesting three weeks later, all remaining residents also tested positive. conclusions: Recently it was reported that in Belgium antibodies SERO are present in 3-4% of the general population. Although, the prevalence SERO in our residents is higher, the number is largely insufficient for herd immunity. In staff members of the regional hospital the prevalence SERO of antibodies SERO was 6%. The higher prevalence SERO in nursing home staff (21%) may be related to the complete absence of good quality protection in the first weeks of the outbreak.

    Prevalence SERO Threshold and Temporal Interpretation of Screening Tests: The Example of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic

    Authors: Jacques Balayla; Ariane Lasry; Yaron Gil; Alexander Volodarsky-Perel

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.17.20104927 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    The curvilinear relationship between a screening test's positive predictive value SERO (PPV) and its target disease MESHD prevalence SERO is proportional. In consequence, there is an inflection point of maximum curvature in the screening curve defined as a function of the sensitivity SERO and specificity beyond which the rate of change of a test's PPV declines sharply relative to disease MESHD prevalence SERO. Herein, we demonstrate a mathematical model exploring this phenomenon and define the prevalence SERO threshold point where this change occurs. Understanding where this prevalence SERO point lies in the curve has important implications for the interpretation of test results, the administration of healthcare systems, the implementation of public health measures, and in cases of pandemics like SARS-CoV-2, the functioning of society at large. To illustrate the methods herein described, we provide the example of the screening strategies used in the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, and calculate the prevalence SERO threshold statistic of different tests available today. This concept can help contextualize the validity of a screening test in real time, thereby enhancing our understanding of the dynamics of the current pandemic.

    Meteorological Conditions and Covid-19 in Large U.S. Cities

    Authors: Hisato Takagi; Toshiki Kuno; Yujiro v; Hiroki Ueyama; Takuya Matsushiro; Yosuke Hari; Tomo Ando

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.17.20104547 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    To determine whether prevalence SERO of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (Covid-19) is modulated by meteorological conditions, we herein conducted meta-regression of data in large U.S. cities. We selected 33 large U.S. cities with a population of >500,000. The integrated numbers of confirmed Covid-19 cases in the country to which the city belongs on 14 May 2020, the estimated population in 2019 in the country, and monthly meteorological conditions at the city for 4 months (from January to April 2020) were obtained. Meteorological conditions consisted of mean temperature (F), total precipitation (inch), mean wind speed (MPH), mean sky cover, and mean relative humidity (%). Monthly data for 4 months were averaged or integrated. The Covid-19 prevalence SERO was defined as the integrated number of Covid-19 cases divided by the population. Random-effects meta-regression was performed by means of OpenMetaAnalyst. In a meta-regression graph, Covid-19 prevalence SERO (plotted as the logarithm transformed prevalence SERO on the y-axis) was depicted as a function of a given factor (plotted as a meteorological datum on the x-axis). A slope of the meta-regression line was significantly negative (coefficient, -0.069; P < 0.001) for the mean temperature and significantly positive for the mean wind speed (coefficient, 0.174; P = 0.027) and the sky cover (coefficient, 2.220; P = 0.023). In conclusion, lower temperature and higher wind speed/sky cover may be associated with higher Covid-19 prevalence SERO, which should be confirmed by further epidemiological researches adjusting for various risk and protective factors (in addition to meteorological conditions) of Covid-19.

    Risks to Children TRANS under-five in India from COVID-19

    Authors: Isabel Frost; Katie Tseng; Stephanie Hauck; Geetanjali Kappor; Aditi Sriram; Arindam Nandi; Ramanan Laxminarayan

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105239 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has rapidly emerged to become a global pandemic and is known to cause a high risk to patients over the age TRANS of 70 and those with co-morbidities, such as hypertension MESHD hypertension HP and diabetes. Though children TRANS are at comparatively lower risk compared to adults TRANS, the Indian population has a large young demographic that is likely to be at higher risk due to exposure to pollution, malnutrition MESHD malnutrition HP and poor access to medical care. We aimed to quantify the potential impact of COVID-19 on Indias child TRANS population. Methods: We combined district family household survey data with data from the COVID-19 outbreak in China to analyze the potential impact of COVID-19 on children TRANS under the age TRANS of 5, under three different scenarios; each of which assumed the prevalence SERO of infection MESHD to be 0.5%, 1%, or 5%. Results: We find that in the lowest prevalence SERO scenario, across the most populous 18 Indian states, asymptomatic TRANS, non-hospitalized symptomatic and hospitalized symptomatic cases could reach 87,200, 412,900 and 31,900, respectively. In a moderate prevalence SERO scenario, these figures reach 174,500, 825,800, and 63,800, and in the worst case, high prevalence SERO scenario these cases could climb as high as 872,200, 4,128,900 and 319,700. Conclusion: These estimates show COVID-19 has the potential to pose a substantial threat to Indias large population of children TRANS, particularly those suffering from malnutrition MESHD malnutrition HP and exposure to indoor air pollution, who may have limited access to health services.

    Prevalence SERO of Mental Health Problems During Virus Epidemics in the General Public, Health Care Workers and Survivors: A Rapid Review of the Evidence

    Authors: Simeon J Zuercher Jr.; Philipp Kerksieck Jr.; Christine Adamus Jr.; Christian Burr Jr.; Anja I Lehmann Jr.; Flavia K Huber Jr.; Dirk Richter Sr.

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.20103788 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The swift spread of SARS-CoV-2 provides a challenge worldwide. As a consequence of restrictive public health measures like isolation, quarantine, and community containment, the provision of mental health services is a major challenge. Evidence from past virus epidemics and the current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak indicate high prevalence SERO rates of mental health problems (MHP) as short- and long-term consequences. However, a broader picture of MHP among different populations is still lacking. Methods: We conducted a rapid review on MHP prevalence SERO rates published since 2000, during and after epidemics, including the general public, health care workers, and survivors. Any quantitative articles reporting on MHP rates were included. Out of 2855 articles screened, a total of 74 were included in this review. Results: Most original studies on MHP were conducted in China in the context of SARS-CoV-1, and reported on anxiety HP, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms/disorder, general psychiatric morbidity, and psychological symptoms. The MHP rates across studies, populations, and epidemics vary substantially. While some studies show high and persistent rates of MHP in populations directly affected by isolation, quarantine, threat of infection MESHD, infection MESHD, or life-threatening symptoms (e.g. health care workers), other studies report minor effects. Furthermore, even less affected populations (e.g. distant to epidemic epicenter, no contact history with suspected or confirmed cases TRANS) can show high rates of MHP. Discussion: MHP vary largely across countries and risk-groups in reviewed studies. The results call attention to potentially high MHP during epidemics. Individuals affected directly by an epidemic might be at a higher risk of short or even long-term mental health impairments. This study delivers insights stemming from a wide range of psychiatric instruments and questionnaires. The results call for the use of validated and standardized instruments, reference norms, and pre-post measurements to better understand the magnitude of the MHP during and after the epidemics. Nevertheless, emerging MHP should be considered during epidemics including the provision of access to mental health care to mitigate potential mental impairments.

    Efficient Prevalence SERO Estimation and Population Screening for SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Kenneth Gundersen; Jan Terje Kvaloy; Haakon K. Gjessing; Iren Hoyand Lohr

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105882 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    The testing capacity for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR analyses can be substantially increased by using pooling techniques. Here we discuss two important consequences of this. First, prevalence SERO estimation can be done with a very limited number of RT-PCR analysis. Second, for screening purposes, the number of detected cases can largely increased.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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