Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (432)

Disease (305)

Death (181)

Coronavirus Infections (164)

Fever (75)


Human Phenotype

Fever (75)

Anxiety (66)

Cough (59)

Hypertension (54)

Pneumonia (38)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 521 - 530 records in total 899
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    COVID-19 in Great Britain: epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the first few hundred (FF100) cases: a descriptive case series and case control analysis

    Authors: Nicola L Boddington; Andre Charlett; Suzanne Elgohari; Jemma L Walker; Helen Mcdonald; Chloe Byers; Laura Coughlan; Tatiana Garcia Vilaplana; Rosie Whillock; Mary Sinnathamby; Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos; Louise Letley; Pauline MacDonald; Roberto Vivancos; Obaghe Edeghere; Joseph Shingleton; Emma Bennett; Daniel J Grint; Helen Strongman; Kathryn E Mansfield; Christopher Rentsch; Caroline Minassian; Ian J Douglas; Rohini Mathur; Maria Peppa; Simon Cottrell; Jim McMenamin; Maria Zambon; Mary Ramsay; Gavin Dabrera; Vanessa Saliba; Jamie Lopez Bernal

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20086157 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: Following detection of the first virologically- confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 in Great Britain, an enhanced surveillance study was initiated by Public Health England to describe the clinical presentation, course of disease MESHD and identify risk factors for infection MESHD of the first few hundred cases. Methods: Information was collected on the first COVID-19 cases according to the First Few X WHO protocol. Case-control analyses of the sensitivity SERO, specificity and predictive value of symptoms and risk factors for infection MESHD were conducted. Point prevalences SERO of underlying health conditions among the UK general population were presented. Findings: The majority of FF100 cases were imported (51.4%), of which the majority had recent travel TRANS to Italy (71.4%). 24.7% were secondary cases TRANS acquired mainly through household contact TRANS (40.4%). Children TRANS had lower odds of COVID-19 infection MESHD compared with the general population. The clinical presentation of cases was dominated by cough MESHD cough HP, fever MESHD fever HP and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP. Non-linear relationships with age TRANS were observed for fever MESHD fever HP, and sensitivity SERO and specificity of symptoms varied by age TRANS. Conditions associated with higher odds of COVID-19 infection MESHD (after adjusting for age TRANS and sex) were chronic heart disease MESHD, immunosuppression and multimorbidity. Conclusion: This study presents the first epidemiological and clinical summary of COVID-19 cases in Great Britain. The FFX study design enabled systematic data collection. The study was able to characterize the risk factors for infection MESHD with population prevalence SERO estimates setting these relative risks into a public health context. It also provides important evidence for generating case definitions to support public health risk assessment, clinical triage and diagnostic algorithms.

    Do COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU require anti-Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis?

    Authors: Alexandre Alanio; Sebastian Voicu; sarah Delliere; Bruno Megarbane; Stephane Bretagne

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105296 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    We are currently facing a frightening increase in COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Aiming at screening for secondary pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, we collected the data of our first twelve ICU patients who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Surprisingly, four were detected with Pneumocystis jirovecii (Pj) DNA and RNA, resulting in Pj prevalence SERO of 17%. Pj is a ubiquitous ascomycetes fungus that thrives at the surface of type-I pneumocytes, specifically in human alveoli, leading to pneumocystosis in immunocompromised patients. Interestingly, none of our patients was immunocompromised per se before admission, while all presented the recognized risk factors for life-threatening COVID-19 infection MESHD. Observing such high prevalence SERO in COVID-infected patients was unexpected. Almost all patients developed ARDS and received high-dose steroids to prevent worsening, as suggested by reports from China. In Pj-positive patients requiring steroids, prophylaxis was given to avoid the risk of pneumocystosis and increased lung inflammation MESHD that may compromise the outcome. We are strongly convinced that testing deep lung specimens for Pj in severe COVID-19 patients should be recommended and Pj-positive patients treated with steroids, and given anti-Pj prophylaxis. This message is important, given the high mortality rate of COVID-19 patients in the ICU.

    Analysis of Covid-19 and non-Covid-19 viruses including influenza viruses to see the influence of intensive preventive measures among Japanese

    Authors: Yosuke Hirotsu; Makoto Maejima; Yumiko Kakizaki; Yoshihiro Miyashita; Hitoshi Mochizuki; Masao Omata

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.20105106 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread and cause death MESHD in worldwide. The preventative measures and infection MESHD control are underway throughout the society and there are signs of convergence in some areas. Other viruses as well as SARS-CoV-2 cause cold-like symptoms and spread in winter. However, it is unclear to what extent SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus and other causative viruses have been prevailed since the preventative measures were implemented. In this study, we conducted multiples PCR and quantitative reverse transcription PCR using nasal swabs from 191 patients with cold-like symptoms in Japan to reveal the causative viruses. As a result, at least one virus were detected in 40 out of 191 (21%) patients. Of these, we frequently identified the human rhinovirus / enterovirus (5.8%, n=11), SARS-CoV-2 (4.2%, n=8) and human metapneumovirus (3.7%, n=7). On the other hand, no influenza virus was detected. These results shows the prevalence SERO of causative viruses after the social preventative measures and implies the difference of infectivity between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus.

    Diagnostic power of chest CT for COVID-19: to screen or not to screen

    Authors: Kristof De Smet; Dieter De Smet; Ingel Demedts; Bernard Bouckaert; Thomas Ryckaert; Emanuel Laridon; Birgit Heremans; Ruben Vandenbulcke; Stefaan Gryspeerdt; Geert Antoine Martens

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20097444 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: chest CT is increasingly used for COVID-19 screening in healthcare systems with limited SARS-CoV-2 PCR capacity. Its diagnostic value was supported by studies with methodological concerns and its use is controversial. Here we investigated its potential to diagnose COVID-19 in symptomatic patients and to screen asymptomatic TRANS patients in a prospective study with minimal selection bias. Methods: From March 19, 2020 to April 20, 2020 we performed parallel SARS-CoV-2 PCR and CT with categorization of COVID-19 suspicion by CO-RADS, in 859 patients with COVID-19 symptoms and 1138 controls admitted to the hospital for COVID-19 unrelated medical urgencies. CT-CORADS was categorized on a 5-point scale from 1 (very low suspicion) to 5 (very high suspicion). AUC under ROC curve were calculated in symptomatic versus asymptomatic TRANS patients to predict positive SARS-CoV-2 positive PCR and likelihood ratios for each CO-RADS score were used for rational selection of diagnostic thresholds. Findings: CT-CORADS had significant (P<0.0001) diagnostic power in both symptomatic (AUC=0.891) and asymptomatic TRANS (AUC=0.700) patients hospitalized during SARS-CoV-2 peak prevalence SERO. In symptomatic patients (41.7% PCR+), CO-RADS [≥] 3 detected positive PCR with high sensitivity SERO (89.1%) and 72.5% specificity. In asymptomatic TRANS patients (5.3% PCR+), a CO-RADS score [≥] 3 detected SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD with low sensitivity SERO (45.0%) but high specificity (88.8%). Interpretation: CT-CORADS has meaningful diagnostic power in symptomatic patients, supporting its application for time-sensitive triage. Sensitivity SERO in asymptomatic TRANS patients is insufficient to justify its use as screening approach. Incidental detection of CO-RADS [≥] 3 in asymptomatic TRANS patients should trigger reflex testing for respiratory pathogens.

    A Novel Approach to Data Driven Pandemic Recovery: The Pandemic Recovery Acceleration Model

    Authors: Jeffrey P Gold; Christopher Wichman; Kenneth Bayles; Ali S Khan; Christopher Kratochvil; James V Lawler; John Martin Lowe; Shelly Schwedhelm; Brandon Grimm

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.17.20104695 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    A data driven approach to guide the global, regional and local pandemic recovery planning is key to the safety, efficacy and sustainability of all pandemic recovery efforts. The Pandemic Recovery Acceleration Model (PRAM) analytic tool was developed and implemented state wide in Nebraska to allow health officials, public officials, industry leaders and community leaders to capture a real time snapshot of how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting their local community, a region or the state and use this novel lens to aid in making key mitigation and recovery decisions. This is done by using six commonly available metrics that are monitored daily across the state describing the pandemic impact: number of new cases, percent positive tests, deaths MESHD, occupied hospital beds, occupied intensive care beds and utilized ventilators, all directly related to confirmed COVID-19 patients. Nebraska is separated into six Health Care Coalitions based on geography, public health and medical care systems. The PRAM aggregates the data for each of these geographic regions based on disease MESHD prevalence SERO acceleration and health care resource utilization acceleration, producing real time analysis of the acceleration of change for each metric individually and also combined into a single weighted index, the PRAM Recovery Index. These indices are then shared daily with the state leadership, coalition leaders and public health directors and also tracked over time, aiding in real time regional and statewide decisions of resource allocation and the extent of use of comprehensive non-pharmacologic interventions.

    The relationship between key natural and social factors and the transmission TRANS of novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 in China

    Authors: Shengnan Lin; Yaman Li; Jia Rui; Yao Wang; Ruixin Wang; Zeyu Zhao; Yuanzhao Zhu; Meng Yang; Jingwen Xu; Xingchun Liu; Li Luo; Jingwei Chen; Dongbei Guo; Benhua Zhao; Yanhua Su; Feng Li; Yi-Chen Chiang; Tianmu Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-31046/v1 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. This study aims to explore the relationship between key natural and social factors and the transmission TRANS of COVID-19 in China.Methods This study collected the number of confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 in 21 provinces and cities in China as of February 28, 2020. Three provinces were included in the sample: Hainan, Guizhou, and Qinghai. The 18 cities included Shanghai, Tianjin and so on. Key natural factors comprised monthly average temperatures in the January and February 2020 and spatial location as determined by longitude and latitude. Social factors were population density, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), number of medical institutions and health practitioners; as well as the per capita values for GDP, medical institutions, and health practitioners. Excel was used to collate the data and draw the temporal and spatial distribution map of the prevalence SERO rate (PR) and the proportion of local infection MESHD (PLI). The influencing factors were analyzed by SPSS 21.0 statistical software, and the relationship between the dependent and independent variables was simulated by 11 models. Finally, we choose the exponential model according to the value of R2 and the applicability of the model.Results The temporal and spatial distribution of the PR varies across the 21 provinces and cities identified. The PR generally decreases with distance from Hubei, except in the case of Shenzhen City, where the converse is observed. The results of the exponential model simulation show that the monthly minimum, median, and maximum average temperatures in January and February, and the latitude and population density are significant and thus will affect the PLI. The corresponding values of R2 are 0.297, 0.322, 0.349, 0.290, 0.314, 0.339, 0.344, and 0.301. The effects of other factors were not statistically significant.Conclusions Among the selected key natural and social factors, higher temperatures may decrease the transmission TRANS of COVID-19. From this analysis, it is evident that if the temperature decreases by 1℃, the average PLI increases by 0.01. Further, it was established that locations at more northern latitudes had a higher PLI, and population density showed an inverse relationship with PLI.

    Why are most COVID-19 infection MESHD curves linear?

    Authors: Stefan Thurner; Peter Klimek; Rudolf Hanel

    id:2005.11302v1 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: arXiv

    Many countries have passed their first COVID-19 epidemic peak. Traditional epidemiological models describe this as a result of non-pharmaceutical interventions that pushed the growth rate below the recovery rate. In this new phase of the pandemic many countries show an almost linear growth of confirmed cases TRANS for extended time-periods. This new containment regime is hard to explain by traditional models where infection MESHD numbers either grow explosively until herd immunity is reached, or the epidemic is completely suppressed (zero new cases). Here we offer an explanation of this puzzling observation based on the structure of contact networks. We show that for any given transmission TRANS rate there exists a critical number of social contacts, $D_c$, below which linear growth and low infection MESHD prevalence SERO must occur. Above $D_c$ traditional epidemiological dynamics takes place, as e.g. in SIR-type models. When calibrating our corresponding model to empirical estimates of the transmission TRANS rate and the number of days being contagious, we find $D_c\sim 7.2$. Assuming realistic contact networks with a degree of about 5, and assuming that lockdown measures would reduce that to household-size (about 2.5), we reproduce actual infection MESHD curves with a remarkable precision, without fitting or fine-tuning of parameters. In particular we compare the US and Austria, as examples for one country that initially did not impose measures and one that responded with a severe lockdown early on. Our findings question the applicability of standard compartmental models to describe the COVID-19 containment phase. The probability to observe linear growth in these is practically zero.

    Epidemiology of sleep disorders during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic scoping review protocol

    Authors: Samia Tasnim; Mariya Rahman; Priyanka Pawar; Liye Zou; Abida Sultana; E. Lisako J. McKyer; Ping Ma; Md Mahbub Hossain

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.17.20104794 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is impacting human health globally. In addition to physical health problems, a growing burden of mental health problems has become a global concern amid this pandemic. Sleep disorders are major mental health problems associated with increased psychosocial stressors; however, no research synthesis is available on the epidemiology of sleep disorders. In this systematic scoping review, we aim to assess the current evidence on the epidemiological burden, associated factors, and interventions from the existing literature on sleep disorders. Methods: We will search seven major health databases and additional sources to identify, evaluate, and synthesize empirical studies on the prevalence SERO and correlates of sleep disorders and available interventions addressing the same. We will use the Joanna Briggs Institute Methodology for Scoping Review and report the findings using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist. Conclusion: This review will identify the epidemiological burden of and interventions for sleep disorders. The findings of this review will be widely communicated with the research and professional community to facilitate future research and practice.

    The prevalence SERO rate and demographic correlates of perceived stress in Alberta during the COVID-19 pandemic: A one-week cross-sectional study

    Authors: Wesley Vuong; April Gusnowski; Shireen Surood; Reham Shalaby; Marianne Hrabok; Kelly Mrklas; Liana Urichuk; Andrew J. Greenshaw; Xin-Min Li; Vincent V. I. O. Agyapong

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30858/v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) continues to have an unprecedented global effect on health and daily life, with many countries struggling to adapt to the adverse pandemic impact. While strict public health measures are necessary to slow the virus’ spread, these measures may adversely affect individual mental health and wellbeing. Texting-based programs offer organizations a feasible and cost-effective option to deliver mental health supports and to collect population-level data. This study reports on the prevalence SERO rate and demographic correlates of perceived stress on the one-week data obtained from Text4Hope enrollees during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods This was a cross-sectional study that used the Perceived Stress Scale to determine the one-week prevalence SERO for perceived stress in Alberta. Univariate and binomial logistic regression analysis were used to determine the demographic correlates (i.e., gender TRANS, age TRANS, ethnicity, educational attainment, employment status, relationship status, and housing status) of moderate/high perceived stress.Results One week after the program launch, 32,805 individuals were enrolled. 6,041 enrollees completed the baseline survey (18.4% response rate). 84.7% of respondents reported moderate/high stress. All demographic variables, except ethnicity, were significantly associated with moderate/high stress (p < 0.001). Females TRANS were 1.5 times more likely to report moderate/high stress (95% CI = 1.2–1.9) than males TRANS. Compared to respondents in the 26–40 years, 41–60 years, and > 60 years of age categories TRANS, those ≤ 25 years of age TRANS were 1.9 (95% CI = 1.1–3.4), 3.4 (95% CI = 1.9–6.3), and 5.3 (95% CI = 2.8–10.0) times more likely to report moderate/high stress, respectively. Unemployed individuals were 2.5 times more likely to report moderate/high stress (95% CI = 1.8–3.6) than employed individuals. Retirees were 1.6 times less likely to report moderate/high stress (95% CI = 1.1–2.2) than employed respondents. Respondents renting a home were 1.7 times more likely to report moderate/high stress (95% CI = 1.3–2.1) than home owners.Conclusion Prevalence SERO rate for perceived stress during the COVID-19 pandemic is very high in Alberta, signaling detrimental pandemic impacts on mental health. Our demographic correlates of perceived stress align with research results from other jurisdictions.Trail registration: The study was approved by the University of Alberta Human Research Ethics Board (Pro00086163).

    Prevalence SERO of facemask use among general public when visiting wet market during Covid-19 pandemic: An observational study.

    Authors: Gobi Hariyanayagam Gunasekaran; Sera Selvanthan Sundram Gunasekaran; Shargunan Selvanthan Gunasekaran; Nur Syafina Insyirah Zaimi; Nor Amirah Abdul Halim

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.17.20105023 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background In late December 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19; previously known as 2019-nCoV) was epidemiologically linked to seafood and wet animal wholesale market in Wuhan, Hubei, China. This has instigated stigma among the general population as the wet market is viewed as a high-risk location for getting infected with coronavirus. Objective This study investigated the prevalence SERO of facemask use among general population visiting the wet market. This study also investigated the demographic factors contributing to unacceptable facemask practice. Setting This prospective observational study was done among visitor to a district wet market selling range of live or freshly slaughtered animals during COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Methods Individuals entering through dedicated entry point were observed for the type, category and practice of wearing personal protective equipment. Inclusion criteria for this study were any individuals entering the wet market. Subjects were categorized into two groups of acceptable and unacceptable facemask practice. The Pearson chi-square was used to test for differences in investigated variables in the univariate setting and Binary Logistic regression model was used in the multivariate setting. Main outcome measure Prevalence SERO, acceptance practice and odds ratio of unacceptance of facemask use. Results Among 1697 individuals included in the final analysis, 1687 (99.7%) was observed wearing facemask with 1338 (78.8%) using medical-grade facemask. Among them, 1615 (95.7%) individuals facemask practice was acceptable while the reaming 72 (4.3%) individuals were observed with unacceptable facemask practice. Individuals using medical-grade facemask and high-risk age group TRANS are 6.4 times (OR=6.40; 95% CI, 2.00-20.43; p=.002) and 2.06 times practice (OR=2.06; 95% CI, 1.08-3.94; p=.028). More likely to practice unacceptable facemask use respectively. Conclusion High saturation of facemask among the general population is an adequate indicator of public hygiene measures strategy which can help to mitigate the COVID-19 epidemic impact. Alarmingly, the unacceptable facemask practice among high-risk population raises the need for a targeted approach by healthcare authorities to ensure satisfactory facemask use.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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