Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (95)

Anxiety (84)

Cough (76)

Hypertension (67)

Pneumonia (48)


Transmission

age categories (458)

gender (210)

Transmission (208)

asymptotic cases (163)

fomite (106)


Seroprevalence
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    Application of disease model to ascertain risk-mitigation strategies during COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, an example from resource-constrained urban settings in Pakistan

    Authors: SHOAIB HASSAN; Mo Salman; Tehmina Mustafa

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-77989/v1 Date: 2020-09-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Most COVID-19 affected resource-constrained settings have not ascertained their disease prevalence SERO that pose a risk for global health. In wake of limited diagnostics and research capacity in such settings, this disease forecasting model provides an example to be adapted for evidence-based response efforts. Using officially reported data, this model forecasted COVID-19 prevalence SERO in cosmopolitan cities. Several risk-mitigation strategies were analyzed for effectiveness in controlling disease incidence. Moreover, the reproduction rates to ascertain transmission TRANS, herd-immunity threshold, and performance SERO of required laboratory tests were studied. The severe-critical cases were relatively low due to larger young population. Following any risk-mitigation strategy, at end of first wave, a susceptible population remained at risk of recurrent COVID-19 transmission TRANS. The herd-immunity threshold was in accordance with global estimates but would need careful monitoring based on adopted risk-mitigation strategy and variation in vaccines’ efficacy. A test-gap between performed vs required laboratory tests led to miss several cases from getting diagnosed. First of its kind, this study estimates sub-national COVID-19 prevalence SERO in dense-urban living in low-middle income settings. Future response policies should consider such evidence to prevent recurrent COVID-19 waves of transmission TRANS. Unless sustained herd-immunity is achieved by effective immunization, risk of re-introduction to vulnerable population would remain. 

    Impact of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO at delivery in women, partners and newborns

    Authors: Pia Egerup; Line Fich Olsen; Ann-Marie Hellerung Christiansen; David Westergaard; Elin Rosenbek Severinsen; Kathrine Vauvert Roemmelmayer Hviid; Astrid Marie Kolte; Amalie Dyhrberg Boje; Marie-Louise Mathilde Friis Bertelsen; Lisbeth Praetorius; Anne Zedeler; Josefine Reinhardt Nielsen; Didi Bang; Sine Berntsen; Jeppe Ethelberg-Findsen; Ditte Marie Storm; Judith Bello-Rodriguez; Andreas Ingham; Joaquim Olle-Lopez; Eva Hoffmann; Charlotte Wilken-Jensen; Lone Krebs; Finn Stener Joergensen; Henrik Torkil Westh; Henrik Lovendahl Jorgensen; Nina la Cour Freiesleben; Henriette Svarre Nielsen

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.14.20191106 Date: 2020-09-15 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Only few studies have focused on serological testing SERO for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant women and no previous study has investigated the frequency in partners. The aim was to investigate the frequency and impact of SARS-CoV-2 in parturient women, their partners and newborns. Methods: From April 4th to July 3rd, 2020, all parturient women, their partners and newborns were invited to participate in the study. Participating women and partners had a pharyngeal swab and a blood SERO sample taken at admission and immediately after delivery a blood SERO sample was drawn from the umbilical cord. The swabs were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by PCR and the blood SERO samples were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Full medical history, obstetric- and neonatal information were available. Results: A total of 1,361 parturient women, 1,236 partners and 1,342 newborns participated in the study. No associations between previous COVID-19 disease and obstetric- or neonatal complications were found. The adjusted serological prevalence SERO was 2.9% in women and 3.8% in partners. The frequency of blood SERO type A was significantly higher in women with antibodies SERO compared to women without antibodies SERO. 17 newborns had SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO, and none had IgM antibodies SERO. Full serological data from 1,052 families showed an absolute risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS of 0.37 if the partner had antibodies SERO. Only 55% of individuals with antibodies SERO reported symptoms. Conclusion: This large prospective cohort study reports no association between COVID-19 and obstetric- or neonatal complications. The family pattern showed a substantial increase in absolute risk for women living with a partner with antibodies SERO.

    Sero-surveillance (IgG) of SARS-CoV-2 among Asymptomatic TRANS General population of Paschim Medinipur District, West Bengal, India(Conducted during last week of July and 1st week of August 2020) - A Joint Venture of VRDL Lab (ICMR), Midnapore Medical College & Hospital & Department of Health and Family Welfare,Govt. of West Bengal, Paschim Medinipur

    Authors: Parthasarathi Satpati; Saumya Sankar Sarangi; Kripasindhu Gantait; Sayantani Endow; Nimai Chandra Mandal; Panchanan Kundu; Subhadip Bhunia; Soham Sarangi; Vladimir Volynkin; Hermann Zellner; Rengul Cetin-Atalay; Maria Martin; Volkan Atalay; Makoto Miyara; Guy Gorochov; Amelie Guihot; Christophe Combadiere; Duraipandian Thavaselvam; Devendra Kumar Dubey; Paul Lin; Hila Shaim; Sean G Yates; David Marin; Indreshpal Kaur; Sheetal Rao; Duncan Mak; Angelique Lin; Qi Miao; Jinzhuang Dou; Ken Chen; Richard Champlin; Elizabeth J Shpall; Katayoun Rezvani

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.12.20193219 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a pandemic, and the infection MESHD due to SARS-CoV-2 has now spread to more than 200 countries . Surveillance systems form the foundation stone of active case finding, testing and contact tracing TRANS, which are the key components of the public health response to this novel, emerging infectious disease MESHD . There is uncertainty about the true proportion of patients who remain asymptomatic TRANS or pre-symptomatic at a given time. As per the WHO-China Joint Monitoring Mission Report, and an analysis of 21 published reports, anywhere between 5 and 80 per cent of SARS CoV 2 infected MESHD patients have been noted to be asymptomatic TRANS. Whereas in India 4197563 cases are positive, in which in West Bengal total 180788 cases (4.04% of Cases of India) positive of COVID 19. In Paschim Medinipur (West Medinipur) district contributing total 5489 cases (3.03% cases of West Bengal). In this scenario, we want to know the status of IgG seroprevalence SERO of SARS CoV 2 among asymptomatic TRANS general population, so that we can determine the extent of infection of SARS CoV MESHD 2 in general population. Objectives: Primary Objective: To estimate the seroprevalence SERO for SARS CoV 2 infection MESHD in the general asymptomatic TRANS population at Paschim Medinipur District. Secondary Objectives: To estimate age TRANS and sex specific seroprevalence SERO. To determine the socio demographic risk factors for SARS CoV 2 infection MESHD; To determine the other risk factors like comorbidities, vaccination status, travel TRANS history, contact history etc.; To determine the durability of Immunity (IgG) conferred by natural infection of SARS-CoV-2 MESHD in individuals previously RTPCR positive. Methodology: It was a cross sectional 30 cluster study among the population of Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal conducted in last week of July and 1st week of August 2020 among 458 asymptomatic TRANS general population and 30 RTPCR positive cases in 30 villages or wards of municipalities. 30 clusters were chosen from list of COVID 19 affected villages/wards of municipality as per PPS (Probability Proportional to Size) method. Results: Of the 458 asymptomatic TRANS general population,19 asymptomatic TRANS people found to be seropositive IgG for SARS CoV 2 with Mean or average total seropositivity rate of 4.15%. 19 Out of 30 (63.33%) RTPCR positive patients found Seronegative. Median of Days between RTPCR test and sero SERO negativity found was 60 with minimum 28 days to maximum 101 days and Range of 73 days and a standard deviation of 19.46. Among risk factors, the risk of having IgG is more in persons having Travel TRANS history with odds ratio of 2.99- 95%CI (1.17-7.65) with p-value- 0.02. Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis with Odds ratio of 8.49- 95% CI(1.59-45.19) with p value - 0.003. Occupation as migrant labour with Odds ratio of 5.08- 95% CI(1.96-13.18) with p value of 0.001. H/O Chicken pox with Odds ratio of 2.15- 95% CI(0.59-7.79) with p value of 0.017. Influenza vaccinated with Odds ratio of 8.07 with 95% CI (0.8-81.48) with a p value of 0.036. Conclusion: Of the 458 asymptomatic TRANS general population,19 asymptomatic TRANS people found to be seropositive IgG for SARS-CoV-2 with Mean or average total seropositivity rate of 4.15%. 19 Out of 30 (63.33%) RTPCR positive patients found Seronegative. Median of Days between RTPCR test and sero SERO negativity found was 60 with minimum 28 days to maximum 101 days and Range of 73 days and a standard deviation of 19.46. Those having Travel TRANS History and having occupation MESHD as Migrant Labourer have significantly higher probability of getting infected with SARS-CoV-2. No role has been found of Hydroxychloroquine Medicines as Chemoprophylactic. No durable immunity conferred by natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 mean time to become seronegative after positive RTPCR test 60 days. So there is a chance of reinfection after average 2 months.

    A dual antigen ELISA SERO allows the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO seroprevalence SERO in a low transmission TRANS setting

    Authors: Sarah Hicks; Kai Pohl; Teresa Neeman; Hayley McNamara; Kate Parsons; Jin-Shu He; Sidra Ali; Samina Nazir; Louise Rowntree; Thi Nguyen; Katherine Kedzierska; Denise Doolan; Carola Vinuesa; Matthew Cook; Nicholas Coatsworth; Paul Myles; Florian Kurth; Leif Sander; Russell Gruen; Graham Mann; Amee George; Elizabeth Gardiner; Ian Cockburn; Bala Pesala; Debojyoti Chakraborty; Souvik Maiti

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.20191031 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: medRxiv

    Estimates of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO have been hampered by inadequate assay sensitivity SERO and specificity. Using an ELISA SERO-based approach to that combines data about IgG responses to both the Nucleocapsid and Spike-receptor binding domain antigens, we show that near-optimal sensitivity SERO and specificity can be achieved. We used this assay to assess the frequency of virus-specific antibodies SERO in a cohort of elective surgery patients in Australia and estimated seroprevalence SERO in Australia to be 0.28% (0 to 0.72%). These data confirm the low level of transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in Australia before July 2020 and validate the specificity of our assay.

    Secondary traumatic stress MESHD and burnout in healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak

    Authors: Francesca Marzetti; Guido Vagheggini; Ciro Conversano; Mario Miccoli; Angelo Gemignani; Rebecca Ciacchini; Eugenia Panait; Graziella Orru; Giovanni Zattera; Matthias Neumair; Uljana Apel; Augustine Okolie; Johannes Mueller; Stefan Schoenert; Elisa Resconi; Monica I Lupei; Christopher J Tignanelli

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.13.20186692 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: medRxiv

    Aims: To assess the level of professional burnout and secondary traumatic stress MESHD, and to identify potential risk or protective factors among health care workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, based on an online survey, collected demographic data and mental distress outcomes from 184 HCWs from May 1st, 2020, to June,15th, 2020, from 45 different countries. The degree of secondary traumatization was assessed using the Secondary Traumatic Stress MESHD Scale (STSS), the degrees of perceived stress and burnout were assessed with Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS) respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify potential risk and protective factors for STS. Results: 184 HCWs (M=90; Age TRANS mean: 46.45; SD:11.02) completed the survey. A considerable proportion of HCWs had symptoms of secondary traumatic stress MESHD (41.3%), emotional exhaustion (56.0%), and depersonalization (48.9%). The prevalence SERO of secondary traumatic stress in frontline HCWs was 47.5% while in HCWs working in other units it was 30.3% (p

    Serological evidence of human infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Xinhua Chen; Zhiyuan Chen; Andrew S Azman; Xiaowei Deng; Xinghui Chen; Wanying Lu; Zeyao Zhao; Juan Yang; Cecile Viboud; Marco Ajelli; Daniel T Leung; Hongjie Yu; Mohammed Alqahtani; Khalid Abdalla; Yousif Yousif; Fouad AboGazalah; Fuad Awwad; Khaled AlabdulKareem; Fahad AlGhofaili; Ahmed AlJedai; Hani Jokhdar; Fahad Alrabiah

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192773 Date: 2020-09-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: A rapidly increasing number of serological surveys for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO have been reported worldwide. A synthesis of this large corpus of data is needed. Purpose: To evaluate the quality of serological studies and provide a global picture of seroprevalence SERO across demographic and occupational groups, and to provide guidance for conducting better serosurveys. Data sources: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, medRxiv, bioRxiv, SSRN and Wellcome were searched for English-language papers published from December 1, 2019 to August 28, 2020. Study selection: Serological studies that evaluated seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in humans. Data extraction: Two investigators independently extracted data from included studies. Data Synthesis: Most of 178 serological studies, representing tests in >800,000 individuals, identified were of low quality. Close contacts TRANS and high-risk healthcare workers had higher seroprevalence SERO of 22.9% (95% CI: 11.1-34.7%) and 14.9% (4.8-25.0%), compared to low-risk healthcare workers and general population of 5.5% (4.6-6.4%) and 6.3% (5.5-7.1%). Generally, young people (0-20 yrs) were less likely to be seropositive compared to the middle- aged TRANS (21-55 yrs) populations (RR, 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.8). Seroprevalence SERO correlated with clinical COVID-19 reports with 10 (range: 2 to 34) infections per confirmed COVID-19 case. Limitations: Some heterogeneity cannot be well explained quantitatively. Conclusions: The overall quality of seroprevalence SERO studies examined was low. The relatively low seroprevalence SERO among general populations suggest that in most settings, antibody SERO-mediated herd immunity is far from being reached. Given that ratio of infections to confirmed TRANS cases is on the same order of magnitude across different locales, reported case numbers may help provide insights into the proportion of the population infected. Primary Funding source: National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (PROSPERO: CRD42020198253).

    Taste alteration in COVID-19: a rapid review with data synthesis reveals significant geographical differences

    Authors: NIcola Cirillo; David Tarazona; Faviola Valdivia Guerrero; Nancy Rojas Serrano; Dennis Carhuaricra; Lenin Maturrano Hernandez; Ronnie Gavilan Chavez

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192831 Date: 2020-09-13 Source: medRxiv

    To facilitate a timely understanding of the differences in the prevalence SERO of gustatory disturbances ( GD MESHD) in individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2, we undertook a rapid systematic review of articles published in the repository of the National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE/PubMed) and medRxiv from their inception until September 3, 2020. The minimum requirements for completing a restricted systematic review were met. Of the 431 articles retrieved, 61 eligible studies (28,374 confirmed COVID-19 cases) from 20 countries were included in the analysis. The results show strong significant differences in the overall reported prevalence SERO of GD between East Asia [13%, 95% CI 0.14-26.06%], Middle East [38.83%, 95% CI 27.47-50.19%], Europe [57.18%, 95% CI 52.35-62.01%], and The Americas [66.78%, 95% CI 54.77-78.79%]. There were no trends showing differences of prevalence SERO of GD in the available literature between February and August,, 2020. These data show that there is a distinct geographical distribution of GD in COVID-19 patients and this may explain the differences of diagnostic criteria for COVID-19 case definition.

    Seroprevalence SERO and Correlates of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO in Healthcare Workers in Chicago

    Authors: John Wilkins; Elizabeth Lucia Gray; Amisha Wallia; Lisa Hirschhorn; Teresa Zembower; Joyce Ho; Naomi Kalume; Ojoma Agbo; Alex Zhu; Laura Rasmussen-Torvic; Sadiya Khan; Mercedes Carnethon; Mark Huffman; Charlesnika Evans

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192385 Date: 2020-09-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Identifying factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among healthcare workers (HCW)s may help health systems optimize SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD control strategies. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Northwestern HCW SARS-CoV-2 Serology Cohort Study. The Abbott Architect Nucleocapsid IgG assay was used to determine seropositivity. Logistic regression models (unadjusted and adjusted for demographics and self-reported community exposure to COVID-19) were fit to quantify the associations between occupation group, healthcare delivery tasks, and community exposure and seropositive status. Results: 6,510 HCWs, including 1,794 nurses, and 904 non-patient facing administrators participated. The majority were women (79.6%), 74.9% were white, 9.7% were Asian, 7.3% were Hispanic and 3.1% were Black. The crude prevalence SERO rate of seropositivity was 4.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.6%-5.2%). Out-of-hospital exposure to COVID-19 occurred in 9.3% of HCWs and was strongly associated with seropositivity (OR=4.7, 95% CI: 3.5-6.4). When compared to administrators, nursing was the only occupation group with a significantly higher adjusted-odds (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9) of seropositivity. Exposure to COVID-19 patients was reported by 37.8% of participants and was associated with higher positivity than those not exposed (OR= 2.2, 95% CI: 1.6-3.0). Being exposed to patients receiving high-flow oxygen therapy, and hemodialysis also remained significantly associated with a 45% and 57% higher odds for seropositive status, respectively. Conclusions: Exposure to COVID-19 patients, and longer duration patient therapies were each associated with higher risk for seropositive status; however, the community burden of COVID-19 remains a significant source of exposure to SARS CoV-2 infection MESHD among HCWs in Chicago.

    The major predictors of testing positive for COVID-19 among symptomatic hospitalized patients

    Authors: Samson Barasa; David Tarazona; Faviola Valdivia Guerrero; Nancy Rojas Serrano; Dennis Carhuaricra; Lenin Maturrano Hernandez; Ronnie Gavilan Chavez

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192963 Date: 2020-09-13 Source: medRxiv

    The major predictors of testing positive for COVID-19 among symptomatic hospitalized patients Samson Barasa,1 Amy Ballard,1 Josephine Kiage-Mokaya, 1 Michael Friedlander,1 Geraldine Luna,2 1PeaceHealth Sacred Heart 2University of Illinois at Chicago Introduction: Increasing corona virus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pre-test probability can minimize testing patients who are less likely to have COVID-19 and therefore reducing personal protective equipment and COVID-19 testing kit use. The aim of this study was to identify patients who were likely to test positive for COVID-19 among symptomatic patients suspected of having COVID-19 during hospitalization by comparing COVID-19 positive and negative patients. Method: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who were [≥]18 years old and underwent COVID-19 Polymerase chain reaction test because they presented with symptoms thought to be due to COVID-19. A Poisson regression analysis was conducted after clinical presentation, demographic, medical co-morbidities, laboratory and chest image data was retrieved from the medical records. Results: Charts of 277 and 18 COVID-19 negative and positive patients respectively were analyzed. Dyspnea HP Dyspnea MESHD (61%) was the most common symptom among COVID-19 negative patients, while 72% and 61% COVID-19 positive patients had cough HP cough MESHD and fever HP fever MESHD respectively. COVID-19 positive patients were more likely to present initially with cough HP [1.082 (1.022 - 1.145)], fever HP fever MESHD [1.066 (1.014 - 1.121)] and be 50 to 69 years old [1.094 (1.021 - 1.172)]. Dyspnea HP Dyspnea MESHD, weakness MESHD, lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD and bilateral chest image abnormality were not associated with COVID-19 positivity. COVID-19 positive patients were less likely to have non-COVID-19 respiratory viral illness [1.068 (1.019 - 1.119)], human immunodeficiency HP immunodeficiency MESHD virus [0.849 (0.765 - 0.943)] and heart failure MESHD history [0.093 (0.891 - 0.978)]. Other chronic medical problems ( hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD and coronary artery disease MESHD) were not associated with testing positive for COVID-19. Conclusion: Cough HP, fever HP fever MESHD and being 50 to 69 years old are better predictors of symptomatic COVID-19 positivity during hospitalization. Despite published studies reporting a high prevalence SERO of lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD among COVID-19 positive patients, lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD is not associated with the risk of testing positive for COVID-19. Key Words: COVID-19, Predictors, Symptomatic, Hospitalized

    Diet and Lifestyle Changes During COVID-19 Lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Authors: Hadia Radwan; Mahra Al Kitbi; Hayder Hasan; Marwa Al Hilali; Nada Abbas; Rena Hamadeh; Eman Rashid Saif; Farah Naja

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-76807/v1 Date: 2020-09-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Lockdown measures were implemented in many countries to limit the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, such restrictions could precipitate unintended negative consequences on lifestyle behaviors. The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence SERO and determinants of unhealthy behavior changes during the COVID-19 lockdown among residents of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).Methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey of adults TRANS residing in the UAE was carried out during lockdown (n=2060). Using a multi-component questionnaire, the collected data included questions regarding the following lifestyle changes: Increased dietary intake, increased weight, decreased physical activity, decreased sleep, and increased smoking. An unhealthy lifestyle change score was calculated based on the number of unhealthy lifestyle changes each participant reported.  In addition, sociodemographic and living conditions information was collected. Descriptive statistics as well as simple and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence SERO and determinants of the unhealthy lifestyle changes considered in this study.Results: Among the unhealthy lifestyle changes examined, increased food intake was the most common (31.8%), followed by decreased physical activity (30%), increased weight (29.4%), decreased sleep (20.8%), and increased smoking (21%). In addition to identifying the correlates of each of the aforementioned lifestyle changes, the results of the multiple regression linear analyses revealed the following correlates for the overall unhealthy lifestyle change score: females TRANS (β=0.32, CI: 0.22;0.42), living in an apartment (β=0.12, CI: 0.003;0.23) and being overweight HP/ obese MESHD (β=0.24, CI: 0.15;0.32) had higher scores, while older adults TRANS (>40 years) had lower scores (β=-0.23, CI: -0.34;-0.12).Conclusion: The COVID-19 lockdown has resulted in a high prevalence SERO of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and practices among UAE residents. The findings of this study provided the evidence base for officials to design interventions targeting high-risk groups and aiming to improve healthy lifestyle factors among residents during the pandemic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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