Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (95)

Anxiety (84)

Cough (76)

Hypertension (67)

Pneumonia (48)


Transmission

age categories (458)

gender (210)

Transmission (208)

asymptotic cases (163)

fomite (106)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 871 - 880 records in total 1165
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    Lifestyle Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease MESHD in Relation to COVID-19 Hospitalization: A Community-Based Cohort Study of 387,109 Adults TRANS in UK

    Authors: Mark Hamer; Mika Kivimaki; Catharine R Gale; George David Batty

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.09.20096438 Date: 2020-05-13 Source: medRxiv

    Aims: It is important to identify characteristics of people who may be most at risk of COVID19 to inform policy and intervention. Little is known about the impact of unhealthy lifestyles including smoking, physical inactivity, obesity HP obesity MESHD, and excessive alcohol intake. We conducted the first large scale general population study on lifestyle risk factors for COVID19. Methods: Prospective cohort study with national registry linkage to hospitalisation for COVID19. Participants were 387,109 men and women (56.4, SD 8.8 yr; 55.1% women) residing in England from UK Biobank study. Physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake, were assessed by questionnaire at baseline (2006 to 2010). Body mass index, from measured height and weight, was used as an indicator of overall obesity HP obesity MESHD. Outcome was cases of COVID19 serious enough to warrant a hospital admission from 16 March 2020 to 26 April 2020. Results: There were 760 COVID19 cases. After adjustment for age TRANS, sex and mutually for each lifestyle factor, physical inactivity (Relative risk, 1.32, 95% confidence interval, 1.10, 1.58), smoking (1.42;1.12, 1.79) and obesity HP obesity MESHD (2.05 ;1.68, 2.49) but not heavy alcohol consumption (1.12; 0.93, 1.35) were all related to COVID19. We also found a dose dependent increase in risk of COVID19 with less favourable lifestyle scores, such that participants in the most adverse category had four fold higher risk (4.41; 2.52, 7.71) compared to people with the most optimal lifestyle. This gradient was little affected after adjustment for a wide range of covariates. Based on UK risk factor prevalence SERO estimates, unhealthy behaviours in combination accounted for up to 51% of the population attributable fraction of severe COVID19. Conclusions and Relevance: Our findings suggest that an unhealthy lifestyle synonymous with an elevated risk of non-communicable disease is also a risk factor for COVID19 hospital admission, accounting for up to half of severe cases. Adopting simple lifestyle changes could lower the risk of severe infection HP infection MESHD.

    COVID-19 transmission risk TRANS factors

    Authors: Alessio Notari; Giorgio Torrieri

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.08.20095083 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: medRxiv

    We analyze risk factors correlated with the initial transmission TRANS growth rate of the recent COVID-19 pandemic in different countries. The number of cases follows in its early stages an almost exponential expansion; we chose as a starting point in each country the first day with 30 cases and we used 12 days, capturing thus the early exponential growth. We looked then for linear correlations of the exponents with other variables, for a sample of 126 countries. We find a positive correlation, faster spread of COVID-19 , with high confidence level with the following variables, with respective p-value: low Temperature (4x10 -7), high ratio of old vs. working- age TRANS people (3x10 -6), life expectancy (8x10 -6), number of international tourists (1x10 -5), earlier epidemic starting date (2x10 -5), high level of physical contact in greeting habits (6x10 -5), lung cancer MESHD prevalence SERO (6x10 -5), obesity HP obesity MESHD in males TRANS (1x10 -4), share of population in urban areas (2x10 -4), cancer MESHD prevalence SERO (3x10 -4), alcohol consumption (0.0019), daily smoking prevalence SERO (0.0036), UV index (0.004, smaller sample, 73 countries), low Vitamin D serum SERO levels (0.002-0.006, smaller sample, 50 countries). There is highly significant correlation also with blood SERO type: positive correlation with types RH- (2x10 -5) and A+ (2x10 -3), negative correlation with B+ (2x10 -4). We also find positive correlation with moderate confidence level (p-value of 0.02-0.03) with: CO2/SO emissions, type-1 diabetes MESHD in children TRANS, low vaccination coverage for Tuberculosis MESHD (BCG). Several of the above variables are correlated with each other and so they are likely to have common interpretations. Other variables are found to have a counterintuitive negative correlation, which may be explained due their strong negative correlation with life expectancy: slower spread of COVID-19 is correlated with high death-rate due to pollution, prevalence SERO of anemia HP anemia MESHD and hepatitis HP hepatitis MESHD B, high blood SERO pressure in females TRANS. We also analyzed the possible existence of a bias: countries with low GDP-per capita, typically located in warm regions, might have less intense testing and we discuss correlation with the above variables.

    Observed and estimated prevalence SERO of Covid-19 in Italy: Is it possible to estimate the total cases from medical swabs data?

    Authors: Francesca Bassi; Giuseppe Arbia; Pietro Demetrio Falorsi

    id:2005.07268v1 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: arXiv

    During the current Covid-19 pandemic in Italy, official data are collected with medical swabs following a pure convenience criterion which, at least in an early phase, has privileged the exam of patients showing evident symptoms. However, there are evidences of a very high proportion of asymptomatic TRANS patients (e. g. Aguilar et al., 2020; Chugthai et al, 2020; Li, et al., 2020; Mizumoto et al., 2020a, 2020b and Yelin et al., 2020). In this situation, in order to estimate the real number of infected (and to estimate the lethality rate), it should be necessary to run a properly designed sample survey through which it would be possible to calculate the probability of inclusion and hence draw sound probabilistic inference. Some researchers proposed estimates of the total prevalence SERO based on various approaches, including epidemiologic models, time series and the analysis of data collected in countries that faced the epidemic in earlier time (Brogi et al., 2020). In this paper, we propose to estimate the prevalence SERO of Covid-19 in Italy by reweighting the available official data published by the Istituto Superiore di Sanit\`a so as to obtain a more representative sample of the Italian population. Reweighting is a procedure commonly used to artificially modify the sample composition so as to obtain a distribution which is more similar to the population (Valliant et al., 2018). In this paper, we will use post-stratification of the official data, in order to derive the weights necessary for reweighting them using age TRANS and gender TRANS as post-stratification variables thus obtaining more reliable estimation of prevalence SERO and lethality.

    Strong negative covariation between toxoplasmosis and CoVID-19 at a global scale: a spurious indirect effect?

    Authors: Łukasz Jankowiak; Lajos Rozsa; Piotr Tryjanowski; Anders Pape Møller

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28659/v1 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Coronaviruses may exert severely negative effects on the mortality and morbidity of birds and mammals including humans and domestic animals. Most recently CoVID-19 has infected over 2,360,000 humans and killed more than 165,000. Susceptibility to this disease appears to differ markedly across different societies but the factors underlying this variability are not known. Given that toxoplasmosis exerts both direct and immune-mediated antiviral effects, we hypothesize a negative covariation between toxoplasmosis and measures of the Covid-19 pandemic across countries. We obtained aged TRANS-adjusted toxoplasmosis prevalence SERO of pregnant women from the literature. Since the differences in the CoVID-19 morbidity and mortality may depend on the different timing of the epidemics in each country, we applied a standard measure, i.e. the date of first documented CoVID-19 in each country as a proxy of susceptibility, with a statistical control for population size effects. Using these two indices, we show a highly significant negative co-variation between the two pandemics across 86 countries. Then, considering that the wealth of nations often co-varies with the prevalence SERO of diseases, we introduced Gross Domestic Product per capita into our model. The prevalence SERO of toxoplasmosis co-varies negatively, while the date of first CoVID-19 cases co-varies positively with GDP across countries. Further, to control for the strong spatial autocorrelation among countries, we carried out a Spatial Structure Analyses of the relationships between the date of first COVID-19, prevalence SERO of toxoplasmosis MESHD, and GDP. Results of this analysis did not confirm a direct causal relationship between toxoplasmosis MESHD and susceptibility to the CoVID-19 pandemics. As far as an analysis of observational data let us to suggest, it appears that the interaction between CoVID-19 and toxoplasmosis is mediated by GDP and spatial effects. This prompts the question whether the formerly known covariation between BCG vaccination and CoVID-19 might have also emerged as a spurious indirect effect.

    Pre-Procedural Surveillance Testing for SARS-CoV-2 in an Asymptomatic TRANS Population Shows Low Rates of Positivity

    Authors: James A Mays; Alexander L Greninger; Keith R Jerome; John B Lynch; Patrick C Mathias

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.08.20078592 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seattle region hospitals have been severely impacted for several months by ongoing community spread of the novel coronavirus 2019 disease. (1,2) Although testing was initially focused on the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic patients, this effort has now expanded to include surveillance of asymptomatic TRANS patients in order to protect health care workers and prevent nosocomial infections MESHD. There is an urgent need to understand best practices for the delivery of routine medical care during an ongoing outbreak. (3) Here we report the rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in asymptomatic TRANS patients screened prior to admission or a surgical or aerosolizing procedure. Methods Beginning March 30, 2020, our hospital began screening all asymptomatic TRANS patients prior to needed surgeries and aerosolizing procedures (n=350). On April 13, 2020, we expanded this practice to universal surveillance screening of all patients prior to admission (n=349). Testing was performed on nasopharyngeal swabs using the Washington state emergency use authorized University of Washington CDC-based laboratory-developed test or FDA authorized DiaSorin Simplexa SARS-CoV-2, Hologic Panther Fusion SARS-CoV-2, or Roche cobas SARS-CoV-2 tests. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of University of Washington Medical Center (STUDY00009734). Informed consent was not required. Results For patients undergoing surgical or aerosolizing procedures, 3 of 350 patients (0.9%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. For patients who were asymptomatic TRANS and tested at the time of admission, 3 of 349 patients (0.9%) were positive and 2 of 349 (0.6%) were inconclusive; inconclusive results were treated as low-level positives. For asymptomatic TRANS patients tested for any other reason (e.g. exposure risk), 12 of 157 patients (7.6%) were positive and 1 of 157 (0.6%) were inconclusive. Meanwhile, of the 473 inpatients in this period who had any symptom concerning for COVID-19, 68 of 473 patients (14.3%) were positive. There was a variety of ordering services and locations in all indication categories, with no particular predominating medical service or location. During this time period the outpatient prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 active infection MESHD in our region was 3-5% (manuscript in review). Discussion The application of universal surveillance testing for SARS-CoV-2 in patients prior to surgery or aerosolizing procedure shows that the positivity rate for SARS-CoV-2 is low (<1%) in asymptomatic TRANS patients without known exposure risk factors. The positivity rate for asymptomatic TRANS patients on admission screen was similar; both measures were notably lower than recently reported measurements during an outbreak in New York City that found a positivity rate of 13.7% in asymptomatic TRANS pregnant women. (4) The rate of sub-clinical infection likely varies with the scale of the community outbreak. Even in the context of a community-wide outbreak, our data show a low prevalence SERO of COVID-19 infection MESHD in the urgent pre-procedural setting. These data reflect the prevalence SERO of asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in a population of individuals who use medical services and provide an assessment of exposure risk to other patients and healthcare workers around the time of admission. The Greater Seattle Coronavirus Assessment Network ( SCAN MESHD) also recently published results from the first 18 days of home-based testing and reported no positive tests in 1392 patients reporting no COVID-19-like illness. (5) Although other studies support a large proportion of asymptomatic TRANS infections, the data from this metropolitan outbreak do not support a similar pattern. Clinical providers, especially those involved in performing procedures that have a risk of aerosolization, are asking for methods to risk-assess patients prior to the procedure. Pre-procedure testing is one option to accomplish this goal. Importantly, in the midst of an outbreak, testing prior to procedures can decrease the use of PPE, identify appropriate precautions for patients, and reduce the risk of nosocomial infection MESHD.

    Evaluating the serological status of COVID-19 patients using an indirect immunofluorescent assay, France.

    Authors: Sophie EDOUARD; Philippe COLSON; Clea melenotte; Fabrizio De Pinto; Laurence THOMAS; Bernard LA SCOLA; Matthieu MILLION; Herve TISSOT DUPONT; Philippe GAUTRET; Andreas STEIN; Philippe BROUQUI; Philippe PAROLA; Jean-Christophe LAGIER; Didier RAOULT; Michel Drancourt

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.05.20092064 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: medRxiv

    An indirect immunofluorescent assay was developed in order to assess the serological status of 888 RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients (1,302 serum samples SERO) and controls in Marseille, France. Incorporating an inactivated clinical SARS CoV-2 isolate as the antigen, the specificity of the assay was measured as 100% for IgA titre [≥] 1:200; 98.6% for IgM titre [≥] 1:200; and 96.3% for IgG titre [≥] 1:100 after testing a series of negative controls as well as 150 serums SERO collected from patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus infection MESHD, non-Coronavirus pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and infections known to elicit false-positive serology. Seroprevalence SERO was then measured at 3% before a five-day evolution up to 47% after more than 15 days of evolution. We observed that the seroprevalence SERO as well as the titre of specific antibodies SERO were both significantly higher in patients with a poor clinical outcome than in patients with a favourable evolution. These data, which have to be integrated into the ongoing understanding of the immunological phase of the infection MESHD, suggest that serotherapy may not be a therapeutic option in patients with severe COVID-19 infection MESHD. The IFA assay reported here is useful for monitoring SARS-CoV-2 exposure at the individual and population levels.

    Psychological Distress Among People Losing Work During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Australia

    Authors: Alex Collie; Luke Sheehan; Caryn van Vreden; Genevieve Grant; Peter Whiteford; Dennis Petrie; Malcolm R Sim

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.06.20093773 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: This study estimated the extent of psychological distress among people losing work during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Australia, and examined associations between distress, nature of work loss and degree of social interaction HP social interaction TRANS. Methods: Data were from a baseline online survey of an inception cohort recruited in the weeks following the introduction of physical distancing and movement restrictions to contain the spread of COVID-19 in Australia. These restrictions resulted in widespread unemployment and working hour reduction. Psychological distress was measured using the Kessler-6 scale. Data on nature of work loss, social interactions HP social interactions TRANS, demographic, job and occupational characteristics were also collected. Regression modelling was conducted to determine the relationship between work loss, social interactions HP social interactions TRANS and psychological distress, accounting for confounders. Results: Among the 551 study participants 31% reported severe psychological distress, 35% in those with job loss MESHD and 28% in those still employed but working less. Those who had significantly greater odds of high psychological distress were younger, female TRANS, had lost their job and had lower social interactions HP social interactions TRANS. The relationship between job loss MESHD and distress became non-significant when financial stress, and occupation were included in the regression model, but the protective effect of higher social interactions HP social interactions TRANS remained significant. Discussion: There was a high prevalence SERO of psychological distress in people losing work during the COVID-19 pandemic. Age TRANS, gender TRANS, job loss MESHD and social interactions HP social interactions TRANS were strongly associated with distress. Interventions that promote social interaction HP social interaction TRANS may help to reduce distress during among people losing work during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Molecular Docking Analyses of Phytochemicals Obtained from African Antiviral Herbal Plants Exhibit Inhibitory Activity against Therapeutic Targets of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Goni AbrahamDogo; Ohaeri Uchechukwu; Uzal Umar; Aboi J. Madaki; John C. Aguiyi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28666/v1 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Presently, the global public health threat of international concern is the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a viral disease of worldwide prevalence SERO caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), at present the disease has no known cure or vaccine. Plants worldwide including plants of African ethnopharmacological relevance are a natural source of abundant and diverse phytochemicals with bioactivity against microorganisms including viruses. We selected 13 plants used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of viral diseases to screen for phytochemicals capable of interfering with SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic targets using AutoDock Vina in silico tool. 25 phytochemicals from these plants that passed the Lipinski rule of drug-likeness were assessed for antiviral activity against three SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic targets, namely: spike glycoprotein, Papain-like protease and 3C-like proteinase. The crystal structure of the viral protein targets was obtained from the protein databank website (https://www.rcsb.org/). The active sites of the target proteins were predicted using SCFBio Server (http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/dock/ActiveSite.jsp) from the PDB file as input. The antiviral herbal phytochemical compounds were then docked with prepared targets: Papain-like protease, 3C-like proteinase and spike glycoprotein. The Autodocking hit results generated six lead phytochemicals out of a library of twenty-five (25) phytochemicals from the African traditional herbs with potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. The lead molecules with their binding affinities against Papain-like protease and 3C-Like Proteinase are as follows: Ginsenosides (-9.9 kcal/mol), ursolic acid (-9.4 kcal/mol), oleanolic acid (-9.4 kcal/mol), cynarine (-8.9 kcal/mol), glabridin (-8.5 kcal/mol) and cinnamoyl-echinadiol (-8.2 kcal/mol). ADMET profile shows glabridin, cinnamoyl-echinadiol and neral obtained from Licorice, Echinacea purpurea and lemongrass respectively, exhibited best-fit values as drugs candidate. We advocate for further in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluate the activity of these lead compounds with a view to optimized drug intervention against COVID-19 pandemic.

    The German COVID-19 Survey on Mental Health: Primary Results

    Authors: Stefanie Jung; Jonas Kneer; Tillmann Krueger

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.06.20090340 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract First cases of COVID-19 were reported in Wuhan, China in early December 2019. Preliminary data from China indicated a substantial impact on mental health by the pandemic and its associated lockdown measures. Such measures are unprecedented for the majority of people and may affect their lives tremendously. The current survey was developed to assess mental health in response to the lockdown in Germany. Methods We conducted a web-based self-report survey including various aspects of mental health (e.g. PHQ-D, PHQ-4, WHO-5 and comparative questions on a 5-point Likert scale concerning sleep, irritability HP irritability MESHD & interpersonal violence). First wave data were taken during the height of lockdown measures in Germany from 1 April to 15 April 2020. Results A total of 3,545 volunteers took part in this cross-sectional survey. Mean age TRANS was 40.36 years (SD = 11.70; 83.1% female TRANS, 15.2% male TRANS). Acute or chronic disease MESHD was reported by 36.7% (physical) and 24.7% (mental) of subjects. Participants scored mild severity distress in the PHQ stress module. Depression MESHD and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD as assessed by PHQ-4 was significantly higher than in reference samples. The mean well-being score (WHO-5) was 50.7, thus pointing towards possible signs of depression MESHD. Furthermore, we found significant gender TRANS differences for anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and depression with women showing higher levels. 45.3% of participants reported worsened sleep, increased levels of irritation, anger and aggression MESHD compared to pre-pandemic times. Most importantly, 5% of all participants reported experiencing interpersonal violence (IPV). Discussion This is one of the first and largest surveys on mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in a European society reflecting a relatively well educated and financially secure sample. Yet, there is evidence for a substantial mental burden with increased levels of stress, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, depressive symptoms MESHD, sleep disturbance HP sleep disturbance MESHD and irritability HP. Most importantly and also most concerning is the finding of a one-month prevalence SERO of 5% IPV. We think it is of vital importance to continuously monitor the mental health of the general public during this pandemic and its aftermath and to carefully screen for IPV and its risk factors such as stress, sleep problems and anger.

    The performance SERO of Chest CT and Its Imaging Features for Diagnosing Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019: a Meta-analysis

    Authors: Shuo Zhang; Zhewei Zhao; Chen Li; Wen Zhang; Shuyang Zhang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28613/v1 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Early diagnosis and isolation of cases are particularly crucial for coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in global pandemic. The aim of this study is to determine the diagnostic performance SERO of chest computed tomography (CT) and imaging features for diagnosing COVID-19. Diagnostic accuracy studies of CT and RT-PCR in patients with clinically suspected COVID-19, which were published up to April 25th, 2020 from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Twelve studies (n=2,204) were included. The pooled sensitivity SERO, specificity, likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of chest CT for detecting COVID-19 were 94.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 89.5 to 97.2%) and 41.8% (95% CI 24.2 to 61.6%), 1.6 (95% CI: 1.6-2.3), 0.13 (95% CI: 0.06-0.31), and 12.4 (95% CI: 4.0-38.5), respectively. Initial RT-PCR revealed a better diagnostic performance SERO. Peripheral lesions, bilateral involvement, multiple lesions, and ground-glass opacities (GGO), revealed to be with better diagnostic value than other CT manifestations. Using chest CT for COVID-19 diagnosis has a high sensitivity and a relatively low specificity. Bilateral multiple peripheral lesions and GGO revealed to be with better diagnostic value. For areas with high prevalence SERO, chest CT could be a good screening test to preliminary screen patients with COVID-19 quickly.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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