Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (91)

Anxiety (82)

Cough (70)

Hypertension (65)

Pneumonia (48)


age categories (444)

Transmission (206)

gender (201)

asymptotic cases (156)

fomite (103)

    displaying 881 - 890 records in total 1136
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    COVID-19 Pandemic- Knowledge, Perception, Anxiety HP and Depression Among Frontline Doctors of Pakistan

    Authors: Faridah Amin; Salman Sharif; Rabeeya Saeed; Noureen Durrani; Daniyal Jilani

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundCOVID-19 is a global pandemic and has become a major public health burden worldwide. With already fragile healthcare systems it can have long lasting effects in developing countries. Outbreaks especially a pandemic situation evokes fear related behaviors among healthcare professionals and there is always an increased risk of mental health disorders. Therefore, this study aims to determine knowledge and perception about this pandemic, prevalence SERO and factors associated with depression/ anxiety HP among frontline physicians of Pakistan.MethodsData were collected through an online survey released in the last week of March-2020. 389 frontline physicians from all four provinces and 65 cities of Pakistan participated. Survey questionnaire consisted of 4 parts including informed consent section, demographic section, knowledge and perception about COVID-19 pandemic and assessment of depression through World Health Organization Self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20). A score of 8 or above on SRQ-20 was used as cut-off to label the participant as depressed. Data was analyzed using SPSS version22.ResultsA 43% prevalence SERO of depression/ anxiety HP among frontline physicians of Pakistan was reported. Almost all the doctors had moderate to high knowledge score. Majority of participants marked N-95 mask as essential while aerosol generating procedures, assessing patients with respiratory symptoms, in COVID patient care area, ER triage and direct care of COVID-19 patient. Only 12% of the doctors were fully satisfied with the provision of PPEs and almost 94% felt unprotected.In multivariable model, the odds of depression was high in physicians who were assessing more than five COVID suspects/patients per day (aOR=2.73, 95% CI: 1.65 – 4.52), who were working 20 hours/week or less (aOR=2.11, 1.27 – 3.49), had children TRANS among household members (aOR= 1.58, 95% CI: 1.00 – 2.50) and had moderate to low knowledge of the infection (aOR=2.69, 95% CI: 1.68 – 4.31).ConclusionDepression/ anxiety HP among more than a third of frontline doctors of Pakistan warrants the need to address mental health of doctors caring for patients during this pandemic; control modifiable factors associated with it and explore the effectiveness of interventions to promote psychological well-being of physicians.

    Identification of pulmonary comorbid diseases network based repurposing effective drugs for COVID-19

    Authors: Jai Chand Patel; Rajkumar Tulswani; Pankaj Khurana; Yogendra Kumar Sharma; Lilly Ganju; Bhuvnesh Kumar; Ragumani Sugadev

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    The number of hospitalization of COVID-19 patients with one or more comorbid diseases is highly alarming. Despite the lack of large clinical data and incomplete understanding of virus pathology, identification of the COVID-19 associated diseases with clinical precision are highly limited. In this regard, our text mining of 6238 PubMed abstracts (as on 23 April 2020) successfully identified broad spectrum of COVID-19 comorbid diseases/disorders (54), and their prevalence SERO on the basis of the number of occurrence of disease terms in the abstracts. The disease ontology based semantic similarity network analysis revealed the six highly comorbid diseases of COVID-19 namely Viral Pneumonia HP, Pulmonary Fibrosis HP Pulmonary Fibrosis MESHD, Pulmonary Edema HP Pulmonary Edema MESHD, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome MESHD Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome ( ARDS MESHD), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease HP Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease MESHD ( COPD MESHD) and Asthma HP. The disease gene bipartite network revealed 15 genes that were strongly associated with several viral pathways including the corona viruses may involve in the manifestation (mild to critical) of COVID-19. Our tripartite network- based repurposing of the approved drugs in the world market revealed six promising drugs namely resveratrol, dexamethasone, acetyl cysteine, Tretinoin, simvastatin and aspirin to treat comorbid symptoms of COVID-19 patients. Our animal studies in rats and literatures strongly supported that resveratrol is the most promising drug to possibly reduce several comorbid symptoms associated with COVID-19 including the severe hypoxemia HP hypoxemia MESHD induced vascular leakage. Overall, the anti-viral properties of resveratrol against corona virus could be readily exploited to effectively control the viral load at early stage of COVID-19 infection through nasal administration.


    Authors: Angelo Virgilio Paradiso; simona De Summa; Nicola Silvestris; Stefania Tommasi; Antonio Tufaro; Giuseppe De Palma; Angela Maria Vittoria Larocca; Vincenzo D'Addabbo; Donata Raffaele; Vito Cafagna; Vito Michele Garrisi

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.05.20086017 Date: 2020-05-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background Health workers are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and, if asymptomatic TRANS, for transmitting the virus on to fragile cancer MESHD patients. Materials and method We monitored health care workers (HCW) of our Cancer Institute with the rapid serological test SERO Viva-DiagTM analyzing COVID-19 associated-IgG/IgM. Test were performed at time 0 and after 14 days; Rt-PCR and CLIA assays SERO were also perfoRmed in positive Viva-DiagTM cases. 606 and 393 HCW had blood SERO sample taken at time 0 and 14, respectively. Results Overall, 9 HCW (1.5%) resulted not-negative at Viva-DiagTM and one of them was confirmed positive for SARS-COV2 infection MESHD at RT-PCR oropharingeal swab. At time 0, all 9 cases showed some IgM expression and only one IgG; after 14 days IgM persisted in all cases while IgG became evident in 4 ones. A parallel CLIA test was performed in 23 quaratined subjetcs and in all Viva-Diag not negative cases. CLIA confirmed a positive level of IgM in 5/13 positive Viva-Diag cases; conversely, IgG was confirmed positive at CLIA in 4/5 cases positive at Viva-Diag. These results pose the question of different performances SERO of the two tests. Conclusions Our study suggest that Viva-Diag assay can be of help in individualizing SARS_COV2 infected people fisrt of all in cohorts of subjetcs with high prevalence SERO. Different performances SERO of serological colorimetric and CLIA tools remain to be ascertained.

    The impact of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) on health systems and household resources in Africa and South Asia

    Authors: Nicholas G Davies; Sedona Sweeney; Sergio Torres-Rueda; Fiammetta Bozzani; Nichola Kitson; Edwine Barasa; Simon Procter; Matthew Quaife; - LSHTM Centre for Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases COVID-19 Working Group; Rosalind M Eggo; Anna Vassall; Mark Jit

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.06.20092734 Date: 2020-05-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) epidemics strain health systems and households. Health systems in Africa and South Asia may be particularly at risk due to potential high prevalence SERO of risk factors for severe disease, large household sizes and limited healthcare capacity. Methods. We investigated the impact of an unmitigated COVID-19 epidemic on health system resources and costs, and household costs, in Karachi, Delhi, Nairobi, Addis Ababa and Johannesburg. We adapted a dynamic model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS and disease to capture country-specific demography and contact patterns. The epidemiological model was then integrated into an economic framework that captured city-specific health systems and household resource use. Findings. The cities severely lack intensive care beds, healthcare workers and financial resources to meet demand during an unmitigated COVID-19 epidemic. A highly mitigated COVID-19 epidemic, under optimistic assumptions, may avoid overwhelming hospital bed capacity in some cities, but not critical care capacity. Interpretation. Viable mitigation strategies encompassing a mix of responses need to be established to expand healthcare capacity, reduce peak demand for healthcare resources, minimise progression to critical care and shield those at greatest risk of severe disease.

    Assessing COVID-19 Risk, Vulnerability and Infection Prevalence SERO in Communities

    Authors: Amin Kiaghadi; Hanadi S Rifai; Winston Liaw

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.03.20089839 Date: 2020-05-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The spread of coronavirus in the United States with nearly one million confirmed cases TRANS and over 53,000 deaths has strained public health and health care systems. While many have focused on clinical outcomes, less attention has been paid to vulnerability and risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD. In this study, we developed a planning tool that examines factors that affect vulnerability to COVID-19. Methods: Across 46 variables, we defined five broad categories: 1) access to medical, 2) underlying health conditions, 3) environmental exposures, 4) vulnerability to natural disasters, and 5) sociodemographic, behavioral, and lifestyle factors. We also used reported rates for morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality in other regions to estimate risk at the county (Harris County) and census tract levels. Analysis: A principal component analysis was undertaken to reduce the dimensions. Then, to identify vulnerable census tracts, we conducted rank-based exceedance and K-means cluster analyses. Results: Our study showed a total of 722,357 (~17% of the County population) people, including 171,403 between the ages TRANS of 45-65 (~4% of County population), and 76,719 seniors (~2% of County population), are at a higher risk based on the aforementioned categories. The exceedance and K-means cluster analysis demonstrated that census tracts in the northeastern, eastern, southeastern and northwestern regions of the County are at highest risk. The results of age TRANS-based estimations of hospitalization rates showed the western part of the County might be in greater need of hospital beds. However, cross-referencing the vulnerability model with the estimation of potential hospitalized patients showed that part of the County has the least access to medical facilities. Conclusion: Policy makers can use this planning tool to identify neighborhoods at high risk for becoming hot spots; efficiently match community resources with needs, and ensure that the most vulnerable have access to equipment, personnel, and medical interventions.

    The Social and Economic Factors Underlying the Impact of COVID-19 Cases and Deaths in US Counties

    Authors: Nivedita Mukherji

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.04.20091041 Date: 2020-05-08 Source: medRxiv

    This paper uncovers the socioeconomic and health/lifestyle factors that can explain the differential impact of the coronavirus pandemic on different parts of the United States. Using a dynamic panel representation of an epidemiological model of disease spread TRANS, the paper develops a Vulnerability Index for US counties from daily reported number of cases over a 20-day period of rapid disease growth. County-level economic, demographic, and health factors are used to explain the differences in the values of this index and thereby the transmission TRANS and concentration of the disease across the country. These factors are also used to examine the number of reported deaths MESHD. The paper finds that counties with high median income have a high incidence of cases but reported lower deaths. Income inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient, is found to be associated with more deaths MESHD and more cases. The remarkable similarity in the distribution of cases across the country and the distribution of distance-weighted international passengers served by the top international airports is evidence of the spread of the virus by way of international travel TRANS. The distributions of age TRANS, race, and health risk factors such as obesity HP obesity MESHD and diabetes MESHD are found to be particularly significant factors in explaining the differences in mortality across counties. Counties with better access to health care as measured by the number of primary care physicians per capita have lower deaths, and so do places with more health awareness as measured by flu vaccination prevalence SERO. Environmental health conditions such as the amount of air pollution is found to be associated with counties with higher deaths from the virus. It is hoped that research such as these will help policymakers to develop risk factors for each region of the country to better contain the spread of infectious diseases MESHD in the future.

    Detecting East Asian Prejudice on Social Media

    Authors: Bertie Vidgen; Austin Botelho; David Broniatowski; Ella Guest; Matthew Hall; Helen Margetts; Rebekah Tromble; Zeerak Waseem; Scott Hale

    id:2005.03909v1 Date: 2020-05-08 Source: arXiv

    The outbreak of COVID-19 has transformed societies across the world as governments tackle the health, economic and social costs of the pandemic. It has also raised concerns about the spread of hateful language and prejudice online, especially hostility HP directed against East Asia. In this paper we report on the creation of a classifier that detects and categorizes social media posts from Twitter into four classes: Hostility HP against East Asia, Criticism of East Asia, Meta-discussions of East Asian prejudice and a neutral class. The classifier achieves an F1 score of 0.83 across all four classes. We provide our final model (coded in Python), as well as a new 20,000 tweet training dataset used to make the classifier, two analyses of hashtags associated with East Asian prejudice and the annotation codebook. The classifier can be implemented by other researchers, assisting with both online content moderation processes and further research into the dynamics, prevalence SERO and impact of East Asian prejudice online during this global pandemic.

    Infection fatality rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in a German community with a super-spreading event

    Authors: Hendrik Streeck; Bianca Schulte; Beate Kuemmerer; Enrico Richter; Tobias Hoeller; Christine Fuhrmann; Eva Bartok; Ramona Dolscheid; Moritz Berger; Lukas Wessendorf; Monika Eschbach-Bludau; Angelika Kellings; Astrid Schwaiger; Martin Coenen; Per Hoffmann; Markus Noethen; Anna-Maria Eis-Huebinger; Martin Exner; Ricarda Schmithausen; Matthias Schmid; Gunther Hartmann

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.04.20090076 Date: 2020-05-08 Source: medRxiv

    The world faces an unprecedented SARS-CoV2 pandemic where many critical factors still remain unknown. The case fatality rates (CFR) reported in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic substantially differ between countries. For SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD with its broad clinical spectrum from asymptomatic TRANS to severe disease courses, the infection fatality rate (IFR) is the more reliable parameter to predict the consequences of the pandemic. Here we combined virus RT-PCR testing and assessment for SARS-CoV2 antibodies SERO to determine the total number of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in a given population. Methods: A sero-epidemiological GCP- and GEP-compliant study was performed in a small German town which was exposed to a super-spreading event (carnival festivities) followed by strict social distancing measures causing a transient wave of infections. Questionnaire-based information and biomaterials were collected from a random, household-based study population within a seven-day period, six weeks after the outbreak. The number of present and past infections was determined by integrating results from anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG analyses in blood SERO, PCR testing for viral RNA in pharyngeal swabs and reported previous positive PCR tests. Results: Of the 919 individuals with evaluable infection MESHD status (out of 1,007; 405 households) 15.5% (95% CI: [12.3%; 19.0%]) were infected. This is 5-fold higher than the number of officially reported cases for this community (3.1%). Infection was associated with characteristic symptoms such as loss of smell and taste. 22.2% of all infected individuals were asymptomatic TRANS. With the seven SARS-CoV-2-associated reported deaths the estimated IFR was 0.36% [0.29%; 0.45%]. Age TRANS and sex were not found to be associated with the infection rate. Participation in carnival festivities increased both the infection rate (21.3% vs. 9.5%, p<0.001) and the number of symptoms in the infected (estimated relative mean increase 1.6, p=0.007). The risk of a person being infected was not found to be associated with the number of study participants in the household this person lived in. The secondary infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS for study participants living in the same household increased from 15.5% to 43.6%, to 35.5% and to 18.3% for households with two, three or four people respectively (p<0.001). Conclusions: While the number of infections in this high prevalence SERO community is not representative for other parts of the world, the IFR calculated on the basis of the infection rate in this community can be utilized to estimate the percentage of infected based on the number of reported fatalities in other places with similar population characteristics. Whether the specific circumstances of a super-spreading event not only have an impact on the infection MESHD rate and number of symptoms but also on the IFR requires further investigation. The unexpectedly low secondary infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS among persons living in the same household has important implications for measures installed to contain the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic.


    Authors: Janice L Atkins; Jane AH Masoli; Joao Delgado; Luke C Pilling; Chia-Ling C Kuo; George Kuchel; David Melzer

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.06.20092700 Date: 2020-05-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Older COVID-19 hospitalized patients frequently have hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD or coronary heart disease MESHD ( CHD MESHD), but whether these are more common than in the population is unclear. During the initial epidemic in England, virus testing for older adults TRANS was restricted to symptomatic hospitalized patients. We aimed to estimate associations between pre-existing diagnoses and COVID-19 status, in a large community cohort. Methods: UK Biobank (England) participants assessed 2006 to 2010, followed in hospital discharge records to 2017. Demographic and pre-existing common diagnoses association tested with COVID-19 status (16th March to 14th April 2020) in logistic models, adjusted for demographics, study site and other diagnoses. Results: There were 274,356 participants aged TRANS 65+, including 448 (0.16%) hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Common co-morbidities in patients were hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (58.5%), coronary heart disease MESHD ( CHD MESHD, 21.1%), history of fall HP or fragility fractures MESHD (30.6%), and type 2 diabetes MESHD (19.6%). However, in adjusted models, COVID-19 patients were more likely than other participants to have pre-existing dementia HP dementia MESHD (OR=3.07 95% CI 1.71 to 5.50), COPD MESHD (OR= 1.82 CI 1.33 to 2.49), depression MESHD (OR=1.81 CI 1.36 to 2.40), type 2 diabetes MESHD (OR=1.70 CI 1.30 to 2.21), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD and atrial fibrillation HP atrial fibrillation MESHD. Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD was modestly associated (OR=1.29 CI 1.04 to 1.59), but CHD MESHD (OR=0.92 CI 0.71 to 1.20) prevalence SERO was similar in COVID-19 patients and other participants. Conclusion: Specific co-morbidities are disproportionally common in older adults TRANS who develop severe COVID-19. Tailored interventions may be needed, as these results do not support simple age TRANS-based targeting to prevent severe COVID-19 infection MESHD.

    Assessing Differential Impacts of COVID-19 on Black Communities

    Authors: Greg Millett; Austin T Jones; David Benkeser; Stefan D Baral; Laina Mercer; Chris Beyrer; Brian Honnermann; Elise Lankiewicz; Lenandro Mena; Jeffrey S Crowley; Jennifer Sherwood; Patrick S Sullivan

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.04.20090274 Date: 2020-05-08 Source: medRxiv

    Purpose Given incomplete data reporting by race, we used data on COVID-19 cases and deaths MESHD in US counties to describe racial disparities in COVID-19 disease and death MESHD and associated determinants. Methods Using publicly available data (accessed April 13, 2020), predictors of COVID-19 cases and deaths were compared between disproportionately (>13%) black and all other (<13% black) counties. Rate ratios were calculated and population attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using COVID-19 cases and deaths via zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. National maps with county-level data and an interactive scatterplot of COVID-19 cases were generated. Results Nearly ninety-seven percent of disproportionately black counties (656/677) reported a case and 49% (330/677) reported a death versus 81% (1987/2,465) and 28% (684/ 2465), respectively, for all other counties. Counties with higher proportions of black people have higher prevalence SERO of comorbidities and greater air pollution. Counties with higher proportions of black residents had more COVID-19 diagnoses (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.17-1.33) and deaths (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.40), after adjusting for county-level characteristics such as age TRANS, poverty, comorbidities, and epidemic duration. COVID-19 deaths were higher in disproportionally black rural MESHD and small metro counties. The PAF of COVID-19 diagnosis due to lack of health insurance was 3.3% for counties with <13% black residents and 4.2% for counties with >13% black residents. Conclusions Nearly twenty-two percent of US counties are disproportionately black and they accounted for 52% of COVID-19 diagnoses and 58% of COVID-19 deaths nationally. County-level comparisons can both inform COVID-19 responses and identify epidemic hot spots. Social conditions, structural racism, and other factors elevate risk for COVID-19 diagnoses and deaths in black communities.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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