Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (587)

Disease (522)

Coronavirus Infections (347)

Death (195)

Pneumonia (179)


Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (195)

Fever (141)

Cough (103)

Hypertension (91)

Respiratory distress (64)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 11 - 20 records in total 1218
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    Comparative analyses of SARS-CoV-2 binding (IgG, IgM, IgA) and neutralizing antibodies SERO from human serum samples SERO

    Authors: Livia Mazzini; Donata Martinuzzi; Inesa Hyseni; Giulia Lapini; Linda Benincasa; Pietro Piu; Claudia Maria Trombetta; Serena Marchi; Ilaria Razzano; Alessandro Manenti; Emanuele Montomoli

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.243717 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: bioRxiv

    A newly identified coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, emerged in December 2019 in Hubei Province, China, and quickly spread throughout the world; so far, it has caused more than 18 million cases of disease MESHD and 700,000 deaths MESHD. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is currently based on the detection of viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs by means of molecular-based assays, such as real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, serological assays SERO aimed at detecting different classes of antibodies SERO constitute the best surveillance strategy for gathering information on the humoral immune response to infection MESHD and the spread of the virus through the population, in order to evaluate the immunogenicity of novel future vaccines and medicines for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 disease MESHD. The aim of this study was to determine SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO in human serum samples SERO by means of different commercial and in-house ELISA SERO kits, in order to evaluate and compare their results first with one another and then with those yielded by functional assays using wild-type virus. It is important to know the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies SERO in order to predict population immunity and possible cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses and to identify potentially infectious subjects. In addition, in a small sub-group of samples, we performed a subtyping Immunoglobulin G ELISA SERO. Our data showed an excellent statistical correlation between the neutralization titer and the IgG, IgM and IgA ELISA SERO response against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein, confirming that antibodies SERO against this portion of the virus spike protein are highly neutralizing and that the ELISA SERO Receptor-Binding Domain-based assay can be used as a valid surrogate for the neutralization assay in laboratories which do not have Biosecurity level-3 facilities.

    K18-hACE2 Mice for Studies of COVID-19 Treatments and Pathogenesis Including Anosmia HP

    Authors: Stanley Perlman; Jian Zheng; LOK YIN ROY WONG; Kun Li; Abhishek K Verma; Miguel E Ortiz Bezara; Christine Wohlford-Lenane; Mariah R. Leidinger; Michael C. Kundson; David K. Meyerholz; Paul B McCray Jr.

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.242073 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: bioRxiv

    The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. While much has been learned in the first months of the pandemic, many features of COVID-19 pathogenesis remain to be determined. For example, anosmia HP is a common presentation and many patients with this finding show no or only minor respiratory signs. Studies in animals experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, provide opportunities to study aspects of the disease MESHD not easily investigated in human patients. COVID-19 severity ranges from asymptomatic TRANS to lethal. Most experimental infections MESHD provide insights into mild disease MESHD. Here, using K18-hACE2 mice that we originally developed for SARS studies, we show that infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 causes severe disease in the lung MESHD, and in some mice, the brain. Evidence of thrombosis MESHD and vasculitis MESHD vasculitis HP was detected in mice with severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Further, we show that infusion of convalescent plasma SERO (CP) from a recovered COVID-19 patient provided protection against lethal disease MESHD. Mice developed anosmia HP at early times after infection MESHD. Notably, while treatment with CP prevented significant clinical disease MESHD, it did not prevent anosmia HP. Thus K18-hACE2 mice provide a useful model for studying the pathological underpinnings of both mild and lethal COVID-19 and for assessing therapeutic interventions.

    Immunogenicity and Safety of a SARS-CoV-2 Inactivated Vaccine in Healthy Adults TRANS Aged TRANS 18-59 years: Report of the Randomized, Double-blind, and Placebo-controlled Phase 2 Clinical Trial

    Authors: Yan-Jun Zhang; Gang Zeng; Hong-Xing Pan; Chang-Gui Li; Biao Kan; Ya-Ling Hu; Hai-Yan Mao; Qian-Qian Xin; Kai Chu; Wei-Xiao Han; Zhen Chen; Rong Tang; Wei-Dong Yin; Xin Chen; Xue-Jie Gong; Chuan Qin; Yuan-Sheng Hu; Xiao-Yong Liu; Guo-Liang Cui; Cong-Bing Jiang; Heng-Ming Zhang; Jing-Xin Li; Min-Nan Yang; Xiao-Juan Lian; Yan Song; Jin-Xing Lu; Xiang-Xi Wang; Miao Xu; Qiang Gao; Feng-Cai Zhu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20161216 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND The top priority for the control of COVID-19 pandemic currently is the development of a vaccine. A phase 2 trial conducted to further evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac). METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the optimal dose, immunogenicity and safety of the CoronaVac. A total of 600 healthy adults TRANS aged TRANS 18-59 years were randomly assigned to receive 2 injections of the trial vaccine at a dose of 3 g/0.5 mL or 6 g /0.5mL, or placebo on Day 0,14 schedule or Day 0,28 schedule. For safety evaluation, solicited and unsolicited adverse events were collected after each vaccination within 7 days and 28 days, respectively. Blood SERO samples were taken for antibody SERO assay. RESULTS CoronaVac was well tolerated, and no dose-related safety concerns were observed. Most of the adverse reactions fell HP in the solicited category and were mild in severity. Pain MESHD Pain HP at injection site was the most frequently reported symptoms. No Grade 3 adverse reaction or vaccine related SAEs were reported. CoronaVac showed good immunogenicity with the lower 3 g dose eliciting 92.4% seroconversion under Day 0,14 schedule and 97.4% under Day 0,28 schedule. 28 days after two-dose vaccination, the Nab levels of individual schedules range from 23.8 to 65.4 among different dosage and vaccination schedules. CONCLUSIONS Favorable safety and immunogenicity of CoronaVac was demonstrated on both schedules and both dosages, which support the conduction of phase 3 trial with optimum schedule/dosage per different scenarios.

    Deciphering the state of immune silence in fatal COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Ido Amit; Pierre Bost; Francesco De Sanctis; Stefania Canè; Ugel Stefano; Katia Donadello; Monica Castellucci; Eyal David; Alessandra Fiore; Cristina Anselmi; Roza Barouni; Rosalinda Trovato; Simone Caligola; Alessia Lamolinara; Manuela Iezzi; Federica Facciotti; Anna Mazzariol; Davide Gibellini; Pasquale De Nardo; Evelina Tacconelli; Leonardo Gottin; Enrico Polati; Benno Schwikowski; Vincenzo Bronte

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-56689/v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, COVID-19 has appeared as a unique disease MESHD with unconventional tissue and systemic immune features. While COVID-19 severe forms share clinical and laboratory aspects with various pathologies such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocyto-sis, sepsis MESHD sepsis HP or cytokine release syndrome MESHD, their exact nature remains unknown. This is severely imped-ing the ability to treat patients facing severe stages of the disease MESHD. To this aim, we performed an in-depth, single-cell RNA-seq analysis of more than 150.000 immune cells isolated from matched blood SERO samples and broncho-alveolar lavage fluids of COVID-19 patients and healthy controls, and integrated it with clinical, immunological and functional ex vivo data. We unveiled an immune sig-nature of disease MESHD severity that correlated with the accumulation of naïve lymphoid cells in the lung and an expansion and activation of myeloid cells in the periphery. Moreover, we demonstrated that myeloid-driven immune suppression is a hallmark of COVID-19 evolution and arginase 1 expression is significantly associated with monocyte immune regulatory features. Noteworthy, we found mon-ocyte and neutrophil immune suppression loss associated with fatal clinical outcome in severe pa-tients. Additionally, our analysis discovered that the strongest association of the patients clinical outcome and immune phenotype is the lung T cell response. We found that patients with a robust CXCR6+ effector memory T cell response have better outcomes. This result is line with the rs11385942 COVID-19 risk allel, which is in proximity to the CXCR6 gene and suggest effector memory T cell are a primary feature in COVID-19 patients. By systemically quantifying the viral landscape in the lung of severe patients, we indeed identified Herpes-Simplex MESHD-Virus 1 (HSV-1) as a potential opportunistic virus in COVID-19 patients. Lastly, we observed an unexpectedly high SARS-CoV-2 viral load in an immuno-compromised patient, allowing us to study the SARS-CoV-2 in-vivo life cycle. The development of myeloid dysfunctions and the impairment of lymphoid arm establish a condition of immune paralysis MESHD paralysis HP that supports secondary bacteria and virus infection MESHD and can progress to “immune silence” in patients facing death MESHD.

    Factors associated with the poor outcomes in diabetic patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Hadith Rastad; Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed; Armita Mahdavi-Ghorabi; Anis Safari; Ehsan Shahrestanaki; Mohammad Rezaei; Mohammad Mahdi Niksima; Akram Zakani; Seyede Hanieh Dehghan Manshadi; Fatemeh Ochi; Shabnam saedi; Zeinab Khodaparast; Neda Shafiabadi Hassani; Mehdi Azimzadeh; Mostafa Qorbani

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-56358/v1 Date: 2020-08-09 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Diabetic’s patients are supposed to experience higher rates of COVID-19 related poor outcomes. We aimed to determined factors predicting poor outcomes in hospitalized diabetic patients with COVID-19.Methods This retrospective cohort study included all adult TRANS diabetic patients with radiological or laboratory confirmed COVID-19 who hospitalized between 20 February 2020 and 27 April 2020 in Alborz province, Iran. Data on demographic, medical history, and laboratory test at presentation were obtained from electronic medical records. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP was self-reported. Comorbidities including cancer, rheumatism, immunodeficiency HP, or chronic diseases MESHD of respiratory, liver, and blood SERO were classified as “other comorbidities” due to low frequency. The assessed poor outcomes were in-hospital mortality, need to ICU care, and receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. Self-reported. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to quantify the predictors of in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 in patients with DM.Results Of 455 included patients, 98(21.5%) received ICU care, 65(14.3%) required invasive mechanical ventilation, and 79 (17.4%) dead. In the multivariate model, significant predictors of “death of COVID-19” were age TRANS 65 years or older (OR (95% CI): 2.0 (1.16–3.44), chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (CKD) (2.05 (1.16–3.62), presence of “other comorbidities” (2.20 (1.04–4.63)), neutrophil count ≥ 8.0 × 10⁹/L )6.62 (3.73–11.7 ((, Hb level < 12.5 g/dl (2.05 (1.13–3.72) (, and creatinine level ≥ 1.36 mg/dl (3.10 (1.38–6.98)). (All p –values < 0.05). Some of these factors were also associated with other assessed poor outcomes, e.g., need to ICU care or invasive mechanical ventilation.Conclusions Diabetic patients with age TRANS 65 years or older, comorbidity CKD, “other comorbidities”, as well as neutrophil count ≥ 8.0 × 10⁹/L, Hb level < 12.5 g/dl, and creatinine level ≥ 1.36 mg/dl, were more likely to dead after COVID-19. Presence of hypertension MESHD hypertension HP and cardiovascular disease MESHD were associated with none of the poor outcomes.

    Performance SERO of an automated anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO in prepandemic cohorts

    Authors: Elena Riester; Beda Krieter; Peter Findeisen; Michael Laimighofer; Kathrin Schoenfeld; Tina Laengin; Christoph Niederhauser

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20169987 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The Elecsys(R) Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO (Roche Diagnostics) was developed to provide an accurate and reliable method for the detection of antibodies SERO to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We evaluated the specificity of the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO in prepandemic sample cohorts across five sites in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Methods: Specificity of the immunoassay SERO was evaluated using anonymised, frozen, residual serum SERO and/or plasma SERO samples from blood SERO donors or routine diagnostic testing. All samples were collected before September 2019 and therefore presumed negative for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO. Cohorts included samples from blood SERO donors, pregnant women and paediatric patients. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: Overall specificities for the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO in 9575 samples from blood SERO donors (n = 6714) and diagnostic specimens (n = 2861) were 99.82% (95% CI 99.69-99.91) and 99.93% (95% CI 99.75-99.99), respectively. Among 2256 samples from pregnant women, specificity was 99.91% (95% CI 99.68-99.99). Among 205 paediatric samples, specificity was 100% (95% CI 98.22-100). Conclusion: The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO demonstrated a very high specificity across blood SERO donor samples and diagnostic specimens from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Our findings support the use of the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO as a potential tool for determination of an immune response following previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in the general population, including in blood SERO donors, pregnant women and paediatric populations.

    Blood SERO biomarkers for assessing headaches MESHD headaches HP in healthcare workers after wearing biological personal protective equipment in a COVID-19 field-hospital

    Authors: Francisco Martín-Rodríguez; Raquel M. Portillo Rubiales; Laura N. Fadrique Millán; Virginia Carbajosa Rodríguez; Ancor Sanz-García; Gabino Mozo Herrera; Guillermo J. Ortega; Esther Durá Ballester; Miguel Ángel Castro Villamor; Raúl López Izquierdo

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-55229/v1 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    The consequences of wearing biosafety equipment by healthcare professionals during their work and the prediction of such consequences need to be assessed. To analyze the role played by different blood SERO biomarkers in predicting the appearance of headaches MESHD headaches HP in healthcare workers wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) in a COVID-19 treatment unit, a Prospective cohort study of 38 healthcare workers from a convalescence MESHD unit of patients with COVID-19 in a field hospital was performed during April 2020. Blood SERO analysis was carried out before the start of the 4 hours shift of the volunteers equipped with PPE. After decontamination, there were asked if they had suffered from headache MESHD headache HP, obtaining the binary outcome. This study included 38 participants with a median age TRANS of 29 years (25th-75th percentile: 26-44 years old), 73.7% female TRANS (28 cases). 44.7% (17 cases) had a headache MESHD headache HP after wearing PPE for 4 hours. The baseline creatinine value reflected a specific odds ratio in the regression model of 241.36 (95% CI: 2.50-23,295.43; p=0.019), and an AUC of 0.737 (95%CI: 0.57-0.90; p<0.01). Blood SERO creatinine is a good candidate for predicting the appearance of a de novo headache MESHD headache HP in healthcare workers after wearing PPE for 4 hours in a COVID – 19 unit.

    Convalescent Plasma SERO as a Treatment for Severe Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD: A Case Report

    Authors: Chaoying Yong; Xinyu Deng; Yuyan Song; Wenguang Tian; Di Qi; Daoxin Wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-55351/v1 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Corona virus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, affecting the lives of millions of people around the world.Although research including hydroxychloroquine, antiviral drugs and vaccines is under way, there is still no effective therapy applied for COVID-19.Case presentation: Here, we reported five cases of severe COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure HP treatment with supportable care and ABO-compatible convalescent plasma SERO(CP).All the patients’clinical conditions, laboratory results, viral nucleic acid results, and chest CT images, were improved. Meanwhile, all the patients recovered and no severe adverse reactions were found. We also followed up the antibody SERO levels of some patients within 2 months after onset, but our study did not show the inherent relationship between CP treatment and changes in antibody SERO levels due to small samples.Conclusions: Although short of evidence of randomized controlled trials, convalescent plasma SERO therapy probably was a potentially safe and effective treatment for COVID-19. 

    Clinical and intestinal histopathological findings in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 patients with hematochezia HP

    Authors: Margaret Cho; Weiguo Liu; Sophie Balzora; Yvelisse Suarez; Deepthi Hoskoppal; Neil D Theise; Wenqing Cao; Suparna A Sarkar

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164558 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 in the form of anorexia MESHD anorexia HP, nausea MESHD nausea, vomiting HP, vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP are usually preceeded by respiratory manifestations and are associated with a poor prognosis. Hematochezia HP is an uncommon clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease MESHD and we hypothesize that older patients with significant comorbidites ( obesity MESHD obesity HP and cardiovascular) and prolonged hospitalization are suspectible to ischemic injury to the bowel. We reviewed the clinical course, key laboratory data including acute phase reactants, drug/medication history in two elderly TRANS male TRANS patients admitted for COVID-19 respiratory failure HP. Both patients had a complicated clinical course and suffered from hematochezia HP and acute blood SERO loss anemia MESHD anemia HP requiring blood SERO transfusion around day 40 of their hospitalization. Colonoscopic impressions were correlated with the histopathological findings in the colonic biopies and changes compatible with ischemia MESHD to nonspecific acute inflammation MESHD, edema MESHD edema HP and increased eosinophils in the lamina propria were noted.Both patients were on anticoagulants, multiple antibiotics and antifungal agents due to respiratory infections MESHD at the time of lower GI bleeding. Hematochezia HP resolved spontaneously with supportive care. Both patients eventually recovered and were discharged. Elderly TRANS patients with significant comorbid conditions are uniquely at risk for ischemic injury to the bowel. Hypoxic conditions due to COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and respiratory failure HP, compounded by preexisting cardiovascular complications, and/or cytokine storm orchestrated by the viral infection MESHD leading to alteration in coagulation profile and/or drug/medication injury can be difficult to distinguish in these critically ill patients. Presentation of hematochezia HP may further increase the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 patients, and prompt consultation and management by gastroenterology is therefore warranted.

    Outcome of Conservative Therapy in COVID-19 Patients Presenting with Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Authors: DM Shalimar; Manas Vaishnav; Anshuman Elhence; Ramesh Kumar; Srikant Mohta; Chandan Palle; Peeyush Kumar; Mukesh Ranjan; Tanmay Vajpai; Shubham Prasad; Jatin Yegurla; Anugrah Dhooria; Vikas Banyal; Samagra Agarwal; Rajat Bansal; Sulagna Bhattacharjee; Richa Aggarwal; Kapil D Soni; Swetha Rudravaram; Ashutosh K Singh; Irfan Altaf; Avinash Choudekar; Soumya J Mahapatra; Deepak Gunjan; Saurabh Kedia; Govind Makharia; Anjan Trikha; Pramod Garg; Anoop Saraya

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169813 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: There is a paucity of data on the management of gastrointestinal(GI) bleeding in patients with COVID-19 amid concerns about the risk of transmission TRANS during endoscopic procedures.We aimed to study the outcomes of conservative treatment for GI bleeding in patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective analysis, 24 of 1342(1.8%) patients with COVID-19, presenting with GI bleeding from 22ndApril to 22ndJuly 2020, were included. Results: The mean age TRANS of patients was 45.8+/-12.7 years; 17(70.8%) were males TRANS; upper GI(UGI) bleeding: lower GI(LGI) 23:1. Twenty-two(91.6%) patients had evidence of cirrhosis HP- 21 presented with UGI bleeding while one had bleeding from hemorrhoids MESHD hemorrhoids HP. Two patients without cirrhosis HP were presumed to have non-variceal bleeding. The medical therapy for UGI bleeding included vasoconstrictors- somatostatin in 17(73.9%) and terlipressin in 4(17.4%) patients. All patients with UGI bleeding received proton pump inhibitors and antibiotics. Packed red blood SERO cells(PRBCs), fresh frozen plasma SERO and platelets were transfused in 14(60.9%), 3(13.0%) and 3(13.0%), respectively. The median PRBCs transfused was 1(0-3) unit(s). The initial control of UGI bleeding was achieved in all 23 patients and none required an emergency MESHD endoscopy. At 5-day follow-up, none rebled or died. Two patients later rebled, one had intermittent bleed due to gastric antral vascular ectasia MESHD, while another had rebleed 19 days after discharge. Three(12.5%) cirrhosis HP patients succumbed to acute hypoxemic respiratory failure HP during hospital stay. Conclusion: Conservative management strategies including pharmacotherapy, restrictive transfusion strategy, and close hemodynamic monitoring can successfully manage GI bleeding in COVID-19 patients and reduce need for urgent endoscopy.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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