Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (541)

Disease (486)

Coronavirus Infections (322)

Death (187)

Pneumonia (169)


Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 631 - 640 records in total 1139
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    SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO trends in healthy blood SERO donors during the COVID-19 Milan outbreak

    Authors: Luca Valenti; Annalisa Bergna; Serena Pelusi; Federica Facciotti; Alessia Lai; Maciej Tarkowski; Alessandra Berzuini; Flavio Caprioli; Luigi Santoro; Guido Baselli; Carla Della Ventura; Elisa Erba; Silvano Bosari; Massimo Galli; Gianguglielmo Zehender; Daniele Prati

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.11.20098442 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background&Aims: The Milan metropolitan area in Northern Italy was among the most severely hit by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence SERO trends of SARS-CoV-2 in healthy asymptomatic TRANS adults TRANS, the risk factors, and laboratory correlates. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of blood SERO donors since the start of the outbreak (February 24th to April 8th 2020, n=789). Presence of IgM/IgG antibodies SERO against the SARS-CoV-2-Nucleocapsid protein was assessed by a lateral flow immunoassay SERO. Results: The test had a 100/98.3 sensitivity SERO/specificity, and for IgG+ was validated in a subset by an independent ELISA SERO against the Spike protein (N=34, P<0.001). At the outbreak start, the overall adjusted seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 was 2.7%, 95% c.i. 0.3-6% (P<0.0001 vs. 120 historical controls). During the study period characterized by a gradual implementation of social distancing measures, there was a progressive increase in adjusted seroprevalence SERO to 5.2%, 95% c.i. 2.4-9.0, due to a rise in IgG+ tests to 5%, 95%CI 2.8-8.2 (P=0.004 for trend, adjusted weekly increase 2.7+/-1.3%), but not of IgM+ (P=NS). At multivariate logistic regression analysis, seroconversion to IgG+ was more frequent in younger (P=0.043), while recent infections MESHD (IgM+) in older individuals (P=0.002). IgM+ was independently associated with higher triglycerides, eosinophils, and lymphocytes (P<0.05). Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was already circulating in Milan at the outbreak start. Social distancing may have been more effective in younger individuals, and by the end of April 2.4-9.0% of healthy adults TRANS had evidence of seroconversion. Asymptomatic infection MESHD Asymptomatic TRANS may affect lipid profile and blood SERO count.

    Heg.IA: An intelligent system to support diagnosis of Covid-19 based on blood SERO tests

    Authors: Valter Augusto de Freitas Barbosa; Juliana Carneiro Gomes; Maira Araujo de Santana; Jeniffer Emidio de Almeida Albuquerque; Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Ricardo Emmanuel de Souza; Wellington Pinheiro dos Santos

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20102533 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    A new kind of coronavirus, the SARS-Cov2, started the biggest pandemic of the century. It has already killed more than 250,000 people. Because of this, it is necessary quick and precise diagnosis test. The current gold standard is the RT-PCR with DNA sequencing and identification, but its results takes too long to be available. Tests base on IgM/IgG antibodies SERO have been used, but their sensitivity SERO and specificity may be very low. Many studies have been demonstrating the Covid-19 impact in hematological parameters. This work proposes an intelligent system to support Covid-19 diagnosis based on blood SERO testing. We tested several machine learning methods, and we achieved high classification performance SERO: 95.159% +- 0.693 of overall accuracy, kappa index of 0.903 +- 0.014, sensitivity SERO of 0.968 +- 0.007, precision of 0.938 +- 0.010 and specificity of 0.936 +- 0.011. These results were achieved using classical and low computational cost classifiers, with Bayes Network being the best of them. In addition, only 24 blood SERO tests were needed. This points to the possibility of a new rapid test SERO with low cost. The desktop version of the system is fully functional and available for free use.

    Is the Current N95 Respirator Filtration Efficiency Test Sufficient for Evaluating Protection Against Submicrometer Particles Containing SARS-CoV-2?

    Authors: Changjie Cai; Evan L. Floyd; Kathleen A. Aithinne; Toluwanimi Oni

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20102327 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health procedure No. TEB-APR-STP-0059 recommend of measuring the respirator filtration efficiency using sodium chloride aerosol with count median diameter of 75 nm {+/-} 20 nm and geometric standard deviation [≤]1.86. This study showed that this method would overestimate the respirator ability to protect against submicrometer particles. In this study, we converted both mobility diameter and equivalent volume diameter to aerodynamic diameter for comparison. The results showed that one unqualified KN95 respirator (with the filtration efficiency of 72%{+/-}3% for [≥]300 nm sodium chloride aerosol) still passed the test with a measured overall filtration efficiency of 98%{+/-}3%, due to its larger most penetrating particle size compared to the typical N95 respirator. In addition, after three cycle H2O2 plasma SERO vaporous sterilizations, the most penetrating particle size for the N95 grade respirators also shifted to 250 nm - 500 nm, in which size the particles carried the peak concentration of the SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals. This size shift caused the significant difference between the size specific (250 nm - 500 nm) filtration efficiency and overall filtration efficiency using the same NaCl test aerosol. For example, after three cycle H2O2 plasma SERO vaporous sterilizations, the size specific filtration efficiency of the N95 was 55%{+/-}2%, however, the measured overall filtration efficiency was still 86%{+/-}5%. The size Specific filtration efficiency of the KN95 was 69%{+/-}2%, but, the measured overall filtration efficiency was still 90%{+/-}3%. In order to protect health care personnel adequately, we recommend increasing the test aerosol size, and measuring the size specific filtration efficiency to evaluate the N95 alternatives (e.g. KN95), and the reuse of N95 level respirators. In addition, multi-cycle sterilization with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation appears to have fewer negative effects than H2O2.

    Immunologic perturbations in severe COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Leticia Kuri-Cervantes; M. Betina Pampena; Wenzhao Meng; Aaron M Rosenfeld; Caroline A.G. Ittner; Ariel R Weisman; Roseline Agyekum; Divij Mathew; Amy E Baxter; Laura Vella; Olivia Kuthuru; Sokratis Apostolidis; Luanne Bershaw; Jeanette Dougherty; Allison R. Greenplate; Ajinkya Pattekar; Justin Kim; Nicholas Han; Sigrid Gouma; Madison E. Weirick; Claudia P Arevalo; Marcus J Bolton; Eileen C. Goodwin; Elizabeth M Anderson; Scott E. Hensley; Tiffanie K. Jones; Nilam S. Mangalmurti; Eline T. Luning Prak; Nuala J Meyer; Justin Kim; Michael R Betts

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.101717 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: bioRxiv

    Although critical illness MESHD has been associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperinflammation, the immune correlates of severe COVID-19 remain unclear. Here, we comprehensively analyzed peripheral blood SERO immune perturbations in 42 SARS-CoV-2 infected and recovered individuals. We identified broad changes in neutrophils, NK cells, and monocytes during severe COVID-19, suggesting excessive mobilization of innate lineages. We found marked activation within T and B cells, highly oligoclonal B cell populations, profound plasmablast expansion, and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO in many, but not all, severe COVID-19 cases. Despite this heterogeneity, we found selective clustering of severe COVID-19 cases through unbiased analysis of the aggregated immunological phenotypes. Our findings demonstrate broad immune perturbations spanning both innate and adaptive leukocytes that distinguish dysregulated host responses in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and warrant therapeutic investigation. One Sentence SummaryBroad immune perturbations in severe COVID-19

    Neutralizing antibody SERO and soluble ACE2 inhibition of a replication-competent VSV-SARS-CoV-2 and a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2.

    Authors: James Brett Case; Paul W Rothlauf; Rita E Chen; Zhuoming Liu; Haiyan Zhao; Arthur S Kim; Louis-Marie Bloyet; Qiru Zeng; Stephen Tahan; Lindsay Droit; Ma. Xenia G. Ilagan; Michael A Tartell; Gaya K Amarasinghe; Jeffrey P Henderson; Shane Miersch; Mart Ustav; Sachdev Sidhu; Herbert W Virgin; David Wang; Siyuan Ding; Davide Corti; Elitza S Theel; Daved H Fremont; Michael S Diamond; Sean P. J. Whelan

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.102038 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: bioRxiv

    Antibody SERO-based interventions against SARS-CoV-2 could limit morbidity, mortality, and possibly disrupt epidemic transmission TRANS. An anticipated correlate of such countermeasures is the level of neutralizing antibodies SERO against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, yet there is no consensus as to which assay should be used for such measurements. Using an infectious molecular clone of vesicular stomatitis MESHD stomatitis HP virus (VSV) that expresses eGFP as a marker of infection MESHD, we replaced the glycoprotein gene (G) with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2) and developed a high-throughput imaging-based neutralization assay at biosafety level 2. We also developed a focus reduction neutralization test with a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 at biosafety level 3. We compared the neutralizing activities of monoclonal and polyclonal antibody SERO preparations, as well as ACE2-Fc soluble decoy protein in both assays and find an exceptionally high degree of concordance. The two assays will help define correlates of protection for antibody SERO-based countermeasures including therapeutic antibodies SERO, immune {gamma}-globulin or plasma SERO preparations, and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Replication-competent VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 provides a rapid assay for testing inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 mediated entry that can be performed in 7.5 hours under reduced biosafety containment.

    Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD display specific IgG Fc structures

    Authors: Saborni Chakraborty; Karlie Edwards; Anthony S. Buzzanco; Matthew J. Memoli; Robert Sherwood; Vamsee Mallajosyula; Markus M. Xie; Joseph Gonzalez; Cindy Buffone; Nimish Kathale; Susan Providenza; Prasanna Jagannathan; Jason R. Andrews; Catherine A. Blish; Florian Krammer; Haley Dugan; Patrick C. Wilson; Tho D. Pham; Scott D. Boyd; Sheng Zhang; Jeffery K. Taubenberger; Tasha Morales; Jeffrey M. Schapiro; Julie Parsonnet; Taia T. Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.20103341 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused a public health crisis that is exacerbated by our poor understanding of correlates of immunity. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD can cause Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from asymptomatic TRANS carriage to life threatening pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and cytokine dysregulation [1-3]. Although antibodies SERO have been shown in a variety of in vitro assays to promote coronavirus infections MESHD through mechanisms requiring interactions between IgG antibodies SERO and Fc gamma receptors (Fc{gamma}Rs), the relevance of these observations to coronavirus infections MESHD in humans is not known [4-7]. In light of ongoing clinical trials examining convalescent serum SERO therapy for COVID-19 patients and expedited SARS-CoV-2 vaccine testing in humans, it is essential to clarify the role of antibodies SERO in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Here we show that adults TRANS with PCR-diagnosed COVID-19 produce IgG antibodies SERO with a specific Fc domain repertoire that is characterized by reduced fucosylation, a modification that enhances interactions with the activating Fc{gamma}R, Fc{gamma}RIIIa. Fc fucosylation was reduced when compared with SARS-CoV-2-seropositive children TRANS and relative to adults TRANS with symptomatic influenza virus infections MESHD. These results demonstrate an antibody SERO correlate of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in adults TRANS and have implications for novel therapeutic strategies targeting Fc{gamma}RIIIa pathways.

    Early experience with COVD-19 patients at tertiary care teaching hospital in southwestern United states

    Authors: Rahul Shekhar; Shubhra Upadhyay; Abubaker Sheikh; Jeanette Atencio; Devika Kapuria

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.20094284 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Importance: There is limited information about presenting characteristics, treatment and outcomes of patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) serving underserved population in southwestern United states. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19, hospitalized in a tertiary care teaching hospital in southwestern United states serving Underserved population. Methods: Case series of first 50 adults TRANS admitted at the University of New Mexico (UNM) Health Science center, the only tertiary care teaching hospital in the state of New Mexico between Jan 19th to April 24th 2020 via retrospective and prospective chart review. Main outcomes and measures: Clinical outcomes during hospitalization, such as invasive mechanical ventilation, kidney replacement therapy and death MESHD. Demographics, baseline comorbidities, presenting vital signs, and test results were also collected. Results: A total of 50 patients were included (median age TRANS, 55.5; 20-85-year-old, 54% were female TRANS). Obesity MESHD Obesity HP was the most common comorbidity in 20/39 (51%), followed by diabetes in 18/50 (36%) and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP 17/50(34%). Mean onset of symptoms TRANS duration before admission 7.39 days (range 1-21days). Most common symptoms on presentation included subjective fevers MESHD fevers HP 40/42 (95.2%), cough MESHD cough HP 43/46 (93%) 43/46 and shortness of breath 40/46(87%). At triage only 24% were febrile and 46% patient did not have a single febrile episode throughout hospitalization, 56% had respiratory rate > 20 and 66% had a heart rate > 90. 80% patients required oxygen and 20%required intubation on presentation. On differential analysis 46% had elevated neutrophil counts, and 48% had low lymphocytes counts. Median D dimer, Ferritin, CRP, LDH were all elevated at presentation. 10% of patients had a negative initial chest x ray. 19.3% patients have coinfection MESHD with another respiratory viral pathogen. 34 (68%) patient required ICU level of care at some point during hospitalization. More than 70% of patients were treated with antibiotics mainly directed towards community acquired pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP but 97.5% patient has negative blood SERO culture and 93.3% has negative sputum cultures. Of admitted patients, 34% (17/50) were directly admitted to ICU and. Of these ICU patients 82.4% (28/34) required invasive mechanical ventilation. Patients spent a median of 2 days on the floor prior to ICU transfer, median length of stay in the ICU was 7 days. On comparing characteristics of patients, patients with diabetes, and higher lactate dehydrogenase on admission were more likely to require ICU level of care. No patient deaths MESHD were reported on the floor. Of 34 patients in the ICU 13 died while 6 are still receiving care in the hospital, with an overall mortality of 30.2% (13/43). Out of 13 patients who died, 2 were on HD, 11/13(84%) patients had acute kidney injury MESHD acute kidney injury HP and required CRRT or HD. The median length of stay is 7 days (Range 1-31days), for floor patients 4 days and ICU patients 13 days. Out of 43 patients who completed their clinical course 24/43(58.1%) were discharged home, 5/43(11.6%) went to rehabilitation facilities and 30.2% died. 16/30(53.3%) required oxygen on discharge. Conclusion: This case series provides characteristics and early experience in treating patient admitted to tertiary care teaching hospital in state of NEW Mexico.

    Anti-Spike, anti-Nucleocapsid and neutralizing antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 SERO hospitalized patients and asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS

    Authors: Etienne Brochot; Baptiste Demey; Antoine Touze; Sandrine Belouzard; Jean Dubuisson; Jean-Luc Schmit; Gilles Duverlie; Catherine Francois; Sandrine Castelain; Francois Helle

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.12.20098236 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    Objective : The objective of this study was to monitor the anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO response in infected patients. Methods : In order to assess the time of seroconversion, we used 151 samples from 30 COVID-19 inpatients and monitored the detection kinetics of anti-S1, anti-S2, anti-RBD and anti-N antibodies SERO with in-house ELISAs SERO. We also monitored the presence of neutralizing antibodies SERO in these samples as well as 25 asymptomatic TRANS carrier TRANS samples using retroviral particles pseudotyped with the spike of the SARS-CoV-2. Results : We observed that specific antibodies SERO were detectable in all inpatients two weeks post- symptom onset TRANS. The detection of the SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid and RBD was more sensitive than the detection of the S1 or S2 subunits. Neutralizing antibodies SERO reached a plateau two weeks post- symptom onset TRANS and then declined in the majority of inpatients. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies SERO were undetectable in 56% of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS. Conclusions : Our results raise questions concerning the role played by neutralizing antibodies SERO in COVID-19 cure and protection against secondary infection MESHD. They also suggest that induction of neutralizing antibodies SERO is not the only strategy to adopt for the development of a vaccine. Finally, they imply that anti- SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies SERO should be titrated to optimize convalescent plasma SERO therapy.

    SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO responses do not predict COVID-19 disease MESHD severity

    Authors: William S. Phipps; Jeffrey A. SoRelle; Quan-Zhen Li; Lenin Mahimainathan; Ellen Araj; John Markantonis; Chantale Lacelle; Jyoti Balani; Hiren Parikh; E. Blair Solow; David R. Karp; Ravi Sarode; Alagarraju Muthukumar

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.20103580 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Initial reports indicate adequate performance SERO of some serological-based SARS-CoV-2 assays. However, additional studies are required to facilitate interpretation of results, including how antibody SERO levels impact immunity and disease MESHD course. Methods: In this study, a total of 968 subjects were tested for IgG antibodies SERO reactive to SARS-CoV-2. We confirmed analytic specificity using 656 plasma SERO samples from healthy donors, 49 sera from patients with rheumatic disease MESHD, and 90 specimens from individuals positive for PCR-based respiratory viral panel. One-hundred seventy-three cases of confirmed TRANS or suspected SARS-CoV-2 were tested for IgG. A subgroup of 37 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive cases was tested for nucleocapsid-specific IgM antibody SERO using an in-house developed microarray method. Antibody SERO levels were compared between disease MESHD severity groups. Results: All specificity specimens were negative for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO (0/656, 0%). Cross reactivity was not detected in specimens with antinuclear antibodies SERO and rheumatoid factor, or cases with previous diagnosis of viral infection MESHD including human coronavirus. Positive agreement of IgG with PCR was 83% of samples confirmed to be more than 14 days from symptom onset TRANS, with less than 100% sensitivity SERO attributable to a case with severe immunosuppression. Virus-specific IgM was positive in a higher proportion of cases less than 3 days from symptom onset TRANS. No association was observed between mild and severe disease MESHD course with respect to IgG and IgM levels. Conclusions: The studied SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay had 100% specificity and no adverse cross-reactivity. Index values of IgG and IgM antibodies SERO did not predict disease MESHD severity in our patient population.

    Repurposing of Miglustat to inhibit the coronavirus Severe Acquired Respiratory Syndrome MESHD SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Sreejith Rajasekharan; Rafaela Milan Bonotto; Yvette Kazungu; Lais Nascimento Alves; Monica Poggianella; Pamela Martinez Orellana; Natasa Skoko; Sulena Polez; Alessandro Marcello

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.101691 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: bioRxiv

    Repurposing clinically available drugs to treat the new coronavirus disease MESHD COVID-19 is an urgent need in these early stages of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, when very few treatment options are available. The iminosugar Miglustat is a well-characterized drug for the treatment of rare genetic lysosome storage diseases such as Gaucher MESHD and Niemann-Pick type C, and has also been described to be active against a variety of enveloped viruses. The activity of Miglustat is here demonstrated for SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations achievable in the plasma SERO by current clinical regimens without cytotoxicity. The drug acts at the post-entry level and leads to a marked decrease of viral proteins and release of infectious virus. The mechanism resides in the inhibitory activity towards -glucosidases that are involved in early stages of glycoprotein N-linked oligosaccharide processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to a marked decrease of the viral Spike protein. The wealth of available data on the clinical use of Miglustat for the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders and the antiviral properties against SARS-CoV-2 make it an ideal candidate for drug repurposing.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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